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Loiid0n:Crost7-Iidfekwoo<i&C? ZSratioDers HaHCoiirt. 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE DRIVING 

A PRACTICAL MANUAL 

FOR ENGINEERS IN CHARGE OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES 



By MICHAEL EEYKOLDS 

MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF EXOIXEERS, 
FOUMERLY LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTOR LONDON, BRIGHTON, AND SODTH COAST RAILWAY 

EIGHTH EDITION 



COMPRISING, BESIDES OTHER ADDITIONAL MATTER 

A KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE 



SSEith nttmcrotts lUustratimts 




gpiol];u. 



LONDON 

CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON 

7, STATIONERS' HALL COURT, LTJDGATE HILL 

1888 

\_All rights reserved'] 



1 J 



:i 



TO 

THE ENGINEMEN AND FIREMEN 



OF 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES 



THEOUGHOUT THE UNITED KINGDOM 



THIS WOEK 



IS 

AS A TRIBUTE OF EEGARD AND RESPECT 

BY THEIR SERVANT 



THE AUTHOB 



rrxv^^ 



PEEFACE. 



I AM ambitious to extend and improve the social condition of 
locomotive drivers by placing within their reach a standard 
test of capacity that will be unaffected by local or temporary 
prejudices, fancies, fashions, or accidental connections. 

It appears to me that our enginemen of to-day will be to 
those of the next century what " Puffing Billy " in 1825 is 
to the " Monarch of Speed " in 1877. I hold a very strong 
opinion that our enginemen may be stripped of old habits 
and customs by self-help and self-reliance, and developed 
into a high state of efficiency. In carrying out such a 
measure of progress, difficulties, no doubt, which usually 
attend the work of reformation, will crop up ; and many 
disappointments await the pioneer. The engine is ahead 
of the engineman — all the hard scheming, comparatively 
speaking, is done ; but the engineman remains where he 
was in George Stephenson's time, and his stationary condi- 
tion jars with his surroundings. 

I propose to introduce certificates for locomotive drivers, 
which will in my opinion be an efficacious method of cele- 
brating and crowning the great and mighty work of Stephen- 
son, who particularly watched over the craft (enginemen), 
and was, I am informed, in his element when he was with 
them. One can easily understand this, for he was hims-elf 
originally an engine-driver. 

By means of certificates of proficiency I hope to see the 
vocation of engine-driver brought up to the standard of what, 



Vi PREFACE. 

I think, Steplienson would have worked it to, tiad he lived 
longer. He would have made every possible provision for 
the recognition of ability, and for giving enginemen a fair 
opportunity of advancing with the engine and with the 
times. By such means each man would develop the 
brightest tints of his nature ; and I see no reason why such 
anticipations should not come to maturity in the region of 
fact. 

The life of engine -driving has in recent years undergone 
great changes for the better. In the improvements of engines 
and in personal comforts, introduced even during the last 
twenty years, locomotive enginemen may find much upon 
which to congratulate themselves. But — to summarise their 
experience — it has consisted of labour and bustle without 
progress. This unsatisfactory condition of things may, it is 
anticipated, be amended by the institution of certificates, 
with the encouragement of corresponding degrees of rank 
and of special uniforms. Certificates of examination afford 
a useful means of gauging a man's capacity, when one might 
otherwise be deceived by appearances. 

My object in writing this work has been to communicate 
that species of knowledge which it is necessary for an engine- 
driver to possess who aspires to take high rank on the foot- 
plate, and to win a certificate of the first class. In the first 
part the elements of the locomotive are described, the 
general working conditions are specified, the principles and 
methods of inspection are elaborately set forth, and the 
causes of failure are analyzed and exposed. Moreover, 
the various duties of an engine-driver, from the moment 
that he enters the running- shed until he returns to it, are 
completely but concisely explained ; whilst the duties and 
the training of a fireman are described with much detail, 
and the principles of the management of the fire— not an 
easy problem — are very fully investigated. 

With a brief notice of the arithmetical problems which 
most usually come within the range of an engine-driver's 



PREFACE. VII 

pra<itlce, the scientific principles of expansion, combustioDf 
&c., involved in his practice, are explained. 

Finally, the groundwork of examination for first-class, 
second-class, and third-class certificates of proficiency is 
succinctly set forth ; to which is added a carefully compiled 
collection of regulations for enginemen and firemen. 

Extracts from the General Acts of Parliament for the 
Regulation of Railways are added in an Appendix. 

Michael Reynolds. 
Bkighton: August, 1877. 



NOTE. 

I have had much, 'pleasure in revising the text of this ivork, 
the production of Mr. Reynolds. It contains a body of original 
matter J in a fresh field of literature, which carries with it the 
charm of novelty, as well as the more lasting attraction of solid 
utility. Many engineers will perceive in its pages the reflection 
of their own experience; and it may be questioned whether the 
business of a locomotive-engine driver could have been better 
presented, by a practical man, for the instruction of the engineers 
and firemoi of the United Kingdom. 

D. K. Clark. 



PEEFACE TO THE THIED EDITIO^^T. 



It is my high privilege to thank most sincerely locomotive 
engineers and firemen, the press and the public, for their 
help and patronage in making "Locomotive Driving" a 
practical success. 

Short of eight months since, the first edition was issued, 
to take its chance — to rise or fall. I sometimes fancied it 



Vlll PREFACE. 

would live and thrive ; at other seasons I thoasjht it would 
die by the "Gorgon visage of neglect," for in its manuscript 
form it was unheeded by some, and set aside by others ; 
and it had no friends. It was harshly judged, and wearily 
I wrapped it in brown paper, and laid it on a shelf, where 
it remained for a considerable length of time. But, when a 
lad, I had read of Columbus strolling as far as the gate cf 
the Convent Juan Perez de Marchena to talk with the Prior 
about the vast continent beyond the Atlantic, of the spheri- 
cal form of the earth, of the construction of maps, and of 
other subjects, and I remembered how the Prior " shut him 
up," and how it turned out in the end that the Prior was 
wrong — very much wrong — and Columbus was right. I 
never forgot the story. So I flung aside uncharitable 
thoughts, and fetched the manuscript down off the shelf, 
hoped for the best, and found a discriminating and active 
publisher. Result : Success. I have been blamed for writing 
ft book : — Found guilty of scattering light where there 
ivas no light. However, " Locomotive Driving," as is evi- 
dent from the great demand for the work, and from the 
large number of letters I have received from all parts of the 
globe — supplied a want, proved of assistance to many ; and 
this is my great reward. 

This, the third edition, like its predecessors, has been 
revised by Mr. D. K. Clark, the eminent author of " Railway 
Machinery," and other works. 

Much additional information is contained in this edition, 
more especially in the "Key to the Locomotive Engine," 
which wdll, I hope, bo of assistance to every person whose 
avocation necessitates a thorough knowledge of a locomotivo 
engine. I hope also that the other extra matter supplied 
will prove acceptable to the young engineer. It will, I be- 
lieve, materially assist him in mastering the technical language 
employed in the profession. 

Michael Reynolds. 
Bkighton : Mill/, 1878. 



CONTENTS. 



fAGS 
rNTRODUCTORY CHAPTER . , . . r „ , . 1 



PART I.— DESCRIPTION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE 

LOCOMOTIVE. 

Chapter I. — General Description of the Locomotive: — 
Classification of Locomotives. — Tlie Boiler. — Barrel. — Fire- 
box Shell. — Fire-box. — Tubes. — Smoke-box. — Chimney. — 
- Boiler-mountings. — Framing. — Cylinders. — Horn-blocks. — 
Guide-bars. — Crank-shaft. — Excentrics. — Expansion-links. 
— Steam-pipe and Blast-pipe. — Feed-pumps. — Injector. — 
Slide-valves. — Lead. — Lap. — Inside Lead. — Compression. — 
Axle-boxes. — Springs. — Wheels. — Coupling-rods. — Brick 
Arch. — Fire-bai's. — Ash-pan. — Blower. — Sand-box. — Cab. 
— Tools, &c. — Tool-box. — Gauge-glasses . . . 8 — 32 

Chapter II, — Detailed Description of the Locomotive, with 
Key : — The Express Locomotive, " Grosvenor," by Mr. W. 
Stroudley. — Frame. — Boiler. — Regulator. — Safety-valves. — 
Gauge-glasses. — Cylinder and Valves. — Slide-bars. — Cylin- 
der-covers. — Pistons and Piston-rods. — Connecting-rod. 
— Valve-gear. — Excentrics. — Reversing-handle. — Crank- 
axle. — Wheels. — Axle-boxes. — Springs. — Feed-pumps. — 
Lubrication. — Steam-brake. — Speed-indicator. — The Cah 
and its Fittings. — Workmanship. — Literal References. — • 
Principal Dimensions .... . . 33 — 56 

Chapter III. — Characteristics of Good-workixg Engines 
Performing Long Runs: — The "Pandora" Express, by 
Mr. John Ramsbottom. — Boiler. — Principal Dimensions. — 
Express Locomotive, by Mr. Patrick Stirling. — Principal 
Dimensions and Weights. — Express Bogie Locomotive, by 



X CONTENTS. 

FACTE 

Mr. S. W. Johnson. — Differences of Sister-engines. — Free 
Running, — Steadiness and Safety .... 57 — 68 

Chapter IV. — To set the Slide-valves . . . 69 — 71 

Chapter V. — How to become a Model Engine-driver: — 
The Model Engine-driver. '— How successfal Driving is 

attained 72—78 

PTER VI.-- Duties of an Engine-driver: — Rules ana 
Principles.- -The Notice Board. — Inspection of the Engine 
from the Foot-plate. — Inspection of the Engine over a Pit, 
in Shed. — Big-ends. — Little-ends. — Excenti-ics. — Inside 
Springs and Axle-boxes. — Gearing. — Glands. — Piston-rod, 
&c. — Ash-pan. — Smoke-box. — Brake. — Screw-shackle. — 
Condition of the Fire in the Shed. — Examination after 
arriving in Shed ........ 79 — 91 

Chapter VII. — Duties and Trainino of a Fireman: — Train- 
ing Firemen. — Making up the Fire. — Oiling the Ma- 
chinery .......... 92 — 101 

Chapter VIII. — Duties op an Engine-driver with a 
Train: — Number of Vehicles in the Train. — Management 
of the Engine with a Train, — Starting. — Steam-blowing. — 
Beats of the Engine. — Pressure on the Slide-bars. — Going 
Tender first. — Keeping up Steam. — Management of the 
Fire. — Haycock-fire. — Concave-fire. — How to Fire pro- 
perly. — When to Fire. — Intervals of Firing. — Bad Firing. — 
The Secret of Good Firing. — Firing with the Steam on. — 
Economy by Good Firing. — To examine the Fire. — Work- 
ing the Damper. — Management of the Feed. — Injectors. — 
Priming. — Composition of Feed- water. — Gauging the Boiler 
for Water. — On the Foot-plate. — Knowledge of the Signals. 
— Knowledge of the Road. — Knowledge of the Traffic. — 
Presence of Mind. — Making Notes. — What to do when an 
Engine breaks down. — Tools should be at hand. — Managing 
the Fire towards the End of the Journc}'. — Use of the 
Blower. — Lubrication of the Cylinders and Valves. — Ap- 
proaching a Terminus 102 — 14:7 

Chapter IX. — Causes of Failures : — How and when some 
Engines have failed. — Good Rule to examine the Engine off 
the Pit.— Failure is due to one of three Things. — Self- 
reliance ......... 148 — 157 

Chapter X. — Shed-day :— Washing out the Boiler. — Filling 
the Boiler. — Examination of the Fire-box. — The Mounting. 
— Cleaning the Tubes. — Packing the Glands. — Remetalling 
a Brasa 158—164 



CONTENTS. XI 

PART II.— SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES. 

Chapter I. — The Indicator: — Normal Indicator-Diagram. — 

Tlie Distribution of Steam in the Cylinder . . 16-5 — 170 

Chapter II. — Hydrostatics, Hydraulics, Pneumatics: — The 
Science of the Gravitation of Fluids. — The Science of Fluids 
in Motion. — Science of the Air 171 — 176 

Chapter III. — Principles op Combustion : — Composition of 
Coal. — Oxygen. — To consume Smoke in a Locomotive. — 
Fire-box 177—180 

Chapter IV. — Steam and the Principles of its Expansion : 
— Physical Properties of Steam. — Pressure of Steam. — Ex- 
pansive Working, how effected. — Diagram of the Pressure 
of expanding Steam. — Calculation of the effective average 
Pressure. — ^Table of Hyperbolic Logarithms . . 181 — 187 

Chapter V. — Principle of the Safety-valve Lever : — 

Mechanical advantage gained. — Calculation . . 188, 189 



PART III.— CERTIFICATES FOR DRIVERS AND FIRE- 
MEN. 

Chapter I. — Certificates for Locomotive Drivers: — Third- 
class Locomotive Driver's Certiticate. — Second-class Loco- 
motive Driver's Certificate. — First-class Locomotive Driver's 
Certificate 190—193 

Chapter II. — Subjects of Examination for Certificates. — 
Proposition 1 : — Conditions on which a Third-class Certifi- 
cate might be issued, and the Mode of Examination. — Read- 
ing, Writing, Signals, Engines, Driving, Trimming, Oiling, 
Firing, Locomotive Ailments ..... 194 — 198 

Proposition 2 : — Conditions on which a Second-class Certificate 

might be granted, and the Subjects of Examination . 198 — 200 

proposition 3 : — Conditions on which a First-class Certificate 

might be granted, and the Subjects of Examination . 200 



PART IV.— EXAMINATION MATTER. 

Arithmetic: — Simple Proportion, Decimals, Reduction, Involu- 
tion, Evolution ... .... 201— 2 IG 

Diagram of Engine-running. — To find the Consumption of Coal 
per Mile. — To calculate the Quantity of Water evaporated 
per Pound of Coal. — The Diameter of Driving-wheel and 



XI 1 CONTENTS. 

TAOE 

the Speed. — To find the Horse-power of a Locomotive. — To 
calculate the Heating Surface of a Fire-box. — To find the 

Area of a Safety-valve 217—227 

Table showing the Consumption of Fuel .... 228, 229 

To test the Quality of Iron 230 

Table of the Force of the Wind . . « . . . .231 
Knots 231—233 



PAET v.— EEGULATIONS FOR ENGINEMEN A^^D FIRE- 
MEN. 

Code of Signals. — Hand Signals. — Semaphore Signals. — Fog 
Siarnals. — Before Startini?. — Whilst Running. — Table show- 
ing the Speed of an Engine. — At Stations and Stopping 
Places. — At the End of a Journey .... 234 — 250 



APPENDIX. 

Extracts from the General Acts ol JFarliamcnt for the Regula- 
tion of Railways . . ...... 251 — 254 



LIST OE TABLES. 



Hyperbolic Logarithms 187 

Consumption of Fuel, in Pounds pjiR Mile, por a given 

Number of Cwts, consumed in a given Distance . . 228 

Force of the Wind 231 

Speed of an Engine when the Time perfouming a Quartek. 

Half, or One Mile ts given 241 



CONTENTS. Xlll 



LIST OF WOOD ElSTGEAYmOS. 



PAGH 

19 
21 

22 
26 
27 



Fig. 1. Injector ..... 

2. Old Slide-valve .... 

3. Modern Slide-valve .... 

4. Laminated Peartng-spring 

5. Conical Bearing-spring . 
Q,Qa,6b,6c, 6d. Mr. William Stkoudley's TiOCOMoxivE, 

"Grosvenor" . . . . i8— 53 

6e. "Pandora" Express Engine, by Mk. John Rams- 
bottom ......... 58 

6/. Express Locomotive, by Mr. Patrick Stirling . 62 
6ff. Express Bogie-engine, by Mr. S. W. Johnson . 64 

7. " Puffing Billy," 1825 74 

8. Position op the Cranks for the Inspection of 

an Exgine 81 

Sa. Position of the Cranks for 'Iesting the Valves 

AND Pistons . . 90 

9. Right-hand Engine ... ... 106 

10. To IMark the Be.\t8 on an Engine lC-7 

11. Normal Indicator Diagram . . . 166 
— Diagram showing Pressure dp Sceam worked 

Expansively in a Cylindek . . . .183 

12, 13. Safety-valve Levers . . ... 188 

14 to 23. Knots .... . 231-233 

24 to 26. Hand Signals ... ... 235 

27 to 29. Semaphore Signals ...,«./. 23G 



LOCOMOTIVE -ENGINE DEIVING. 



INTEODUCTOEY CHAPTER. 

" I LOVE," says Elihu Burritt, writing about the loco- 
motive engine, " to see one of those huge creatures, 
with sinews of brass and muscles of iron, strut forth 
from his stable and, saluting the train of cars with a 
dozen sonorous puffs from his iron nostrils, fall back 
gently into his harness. 

" There he stands champering and foaming upon the 
iron track, his great heart a furnace of glowing coals, 
his lymphatic blood boiling within his veins, the 
strength of a thousand horses is nerving his sinews, he 
pants to be gone. He would drag St. Peter's across 
the desert of Sahara if he could be hitched on." 

This is a fortunate hour for locomotive drivers, for, 
on all the great lines of railways, most of the engines 
attached to swift and important trains are, in design 
and workmanship, the best that have been placed upon 
the metals. 

The grand aims and achievements of locomotive super- 
intendents, are, without controversy, in the interests of 

B 



55 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

the driver and fireman, not only in respect to the mag- 
nificent engines entrusted to their charge, but also with 
regard to matters appertaining to the engine- shed. 
Whether inside or outside, the progress that has been 
made is conducive to their comfort, health, and cleanli- 
ness. 

The general introduction of the " cab " in locomo- 
tives is in itself a great boon ; but, excellent as it is, 
it is surpassed, and is lost in the background, when 
we glance at the great improvements which have been 
made during the last few years in the construction of 
engines which are thorough masters of their loads. 

An engine may be equipped with every imaginable 
modern improvement, but if unprovided with a good 
margin of power for extra traffic in its tubes and fire- 
box — that is in its heating surface — it is sure, whatever 
else there may be good about it, to reflect somewhat 
upon the abilities of its designer. 

There is, however, no more pleasant fact to contem- 
plate in connection with the practice of modern loco- 
motive builders than this : they have unanimously 
endeavoured to combine, in one machine, a fine boiler 
with ample heating surface, direct connection between 
the cylinders and crank- axle, and a simplicity of 
arrangement that borders upon art. "What is equally 
commendable, they have made the boiler quite inde- 
pendent of the frame, and free from the strain of the 
tractive power — conditions which are most conducive 
to the duration of the boiler and also to that of the 
engine. 

Such splendid engines as are seen nowadays with 
all the "crack" trains — master-steeds "champering*' 
and foaming about the iron track, having over a 



liNTKODUCTORY CHAPTER. 3 

thousand square feet of heating surface, easily managed 
under cover of the cab, and fitted with steam brakes — 
are facts about which engine-drivers may safely talk, 
and upon which they may congratulate each other, 
making their calling to-day pleasanter than it has ever 
been since 1825. 

Very well, such are facts ; but it is seen, recognised, 
and commented upon, by those whose authority to speak 
from experience in such matters none can dispute, that 
the progress of the locomotive is ahead of that of the 
engineman. Think you, if to-day a separation were 
made, on every line, of the drivers who could set their 
engines for testing the valves and pistons from those 
who could not do so, would the numbers be equal ? 
How many could explain the benefits of lap and lead ? 
Could ten out of a hundred give an explanation why 
the slide-block rubs against the top slide-bar when the 
engine goes first, and not on the bottom bar ? and why 
the slide-block rubs on the bottom bar going tender 
first ? And what of the action of the blast and of the 
injector ? What of the laws that govern the combus- 
tion of coal in the fire-box ? 

The above, and many other questions of equal im- 
portance, a knowledge of which is calculated to send a 
man along the path of progress, are awaiting solution 
by young drivers; for they ought to possess this know- 
ledge at the onset of their career, and they should not 
be left to discover it for themselves, at hazard, only 
through unforeseen or accidental circumstances, spread 
over long periods of time. 

Reticence on the part of the older drivers has 
always been a difficulty in the path of the younger 
ones. " I had to find it out through fines " — gold and 



4 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

silver probably — " you must do the same," said an old 
engineman to anotber, in answer to a question ; and 
wbat experience bad taugbt tbe elder one be yery de- 
voutly consecrated to tbe god self. Is not tbis a com- 
mon feature, and a fact of every-day occurrence ? 

It is not an unusual occurrence tbat a fireman pre- 
sents bimself before bis superintendent to pass for tbe 
position of driver wbo is totally in tbe dark respecting 
tbe manner of testing tbe pistons, or bow tbe difierence 
between tbe leaking of a piston and tbat of a valve is 
distinguisbed ; notwitbstanding tbat be may bave been 
for several years upon tbe foot-plate, and may bave fired 
for " tip- top " enginemen on "crack" locomotives, 
attacbed to important trains. 

Sucb is tbe case, and tbe deficiency of knowledge 
awaits a speedy and efiectual remedy in tbis age of 
keen investigation. Witbout inquiry and investigation, 
wbicb lead up to distinction, men are even in tbis, as 
in many otber departments of life, left out in tbe cold. 
Tbere is, bappily, an inquisitive spirit abroad on rail- 
ways, and there are signs of improvement everywhere. 
Tbe tide, wbicb bas brooded over wbole acres of intel- 
lectual wortb, is now on tbe ebb; marks of progress are 
visible, and tbere is bope for tbe future. 

Upon all railroads tbere is plenty of genuine, solid, 
old Teutonic pluck ; tbere are men as persevering and 
as fearless of toil and struggle as ever broke bread, 
wbo, in thousands of instances, bave made hair-breadth 
escapes in order to reach tbe driver's handle — tbe only 
object of their earthly ambition. For tbis — and be it 
remembered it is sometimes taken from them by the 
band of sudden death almost directly after it is 
attained — they pull bard and long, through winters 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. O 

and summers, in wind and in rain, in tlie stillness 
of night, in lightnings and thunder ; at all times, 
while on duty, surrounded by hidden dangers, inse- 
parable from life on the foot-plate. Such are a few of 
the vicissitudes in the lives of our locomotive drivers, 
calling forth no inferior quality of pluck, enduranct;, 
and courage. 

jN^o one can be a locomotive driver, whatever he maj^ 
imagine, on any other terms than fearless toil. There 
is no " royal road " to the lever. Promotion is really 
and of necessity a matter of so many hundred thou- 
sand miles running with a moderate amount of nous. 
Though the way to the lever cannot be learned from 
books, still it must be acknowledged that a deal may 
be told which probably may assist, at the least, in pre- 
serving industry from being misapplied. The atmo- 
sphere of the foot-plate is a strong solution of books, 
and nothing whatever is learned there without close 
observation. 

Dr. Smollett, in prefacing his translation of M. Le 
Sage's incomparable " Gil Bias," entertains his readers 
with a story that illustrates the nature of the philo- 
sophy which supplies the key to unlock and to obtain 
possession of locomotive knowledge. 

Two scholars were travelling from Pannafiel to Sala- 
manca, and, being fatigued and thirsty, they sat down 
by the side of a spring. After resting awhile, and 
having quenched their thirst, one of them perceived 
some letters engraved on a stone. After washing it they 
both read these words in the Castillian tongue, " Aqui 
esta encerrada el alma del Licentiate Pedro Garcias.'' 

The elder of the two no sooner read the inscription, 
— which is, in English, " Here is interred the soul of 



6 INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

the Licentiate Pedro Garcias" — than he cried out, " A 
good joke, i' faith ! Here is interred a soul ! A soul 
interred ! Who on earth could be the author of such an 
epitaph ? " and he arose and went on his journey. 
His companion, although younger, was blessed with a 
greater share of penetration, and stayed behind, resolved 
to discover the meaning of the strange writing. With 
his knife he digged around the stone, and succeeded so 
well that he got it up and found beneath it a leathern 
purse containing 100 ducats, and a card on which was 
written, " Whosoever thou art that hath wit enough to 
discover the meaning of the inscription, inherit my 
money.*' The lad replaced the stone, and walked home 
with the " soul '* of the Licentiate Pedro Garcias in 
his pocket. 

If we look into the character of those railway men 
who, by force of muscle and brain, have raised them- 
selves, from either the vice or the footplate, into 
positions of honour, we shall find that each individual 
resembles the younger of the two scholars. Possessing 
his inquiring spirit and painstaking attention, they 
let nothing escape them — not a little bit ; if there was 
something new to be seen or heard they saw it and 
their ears were open ; were it something to be read, 
marked, or learned, there was nothing wanting on their 
part. True it is, that the more we know of such men, 
the more certain we are that each and all of their 
actions are evolved from one common but comprehen- 
sive principle, converging towards one ultimate achieve- 
ment. 

Before dealing closely with matter in keeping with 
the title of this work, referring to locomotive engines 
under steam, it will first be our duty to notice, as 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 7 

briefly as tlie nature of the subject will allow, with 
what and how the engine is erected, and the manner of 
putting it together — in a word, to walk round it. To 
play well upon an instrument it is necessary to know 
the notes ; for, though music played by ear is listened 
to, the performer's field of usefulness is a limited one, 
moving in a small circle, like a white mouse in an 
Italian boy's cage ; but music played from notes has 
an everlasting charm subject to no vagaries. 

To play well upon a locomotive engine, in the sense 
of wielding over it a kind of sovereignty, it is essential 
that the performer be acquainted with it anatomically 
and physiologically, and that he should have a thorough 
knowledge of the principle of the generation and 
application of steam. "Without such knowledge no 
man can become a locomotive engineer. 

It is a fact that no two locomotive builders put their 
engines together precisely with the same quality of 
materials, or in the same way, any more than they 
follow one particular class or pattern ; for the simple 
reason that the engine is not strictly a product of 
mathematical inquiry, but it is the outcome of many 
observations made by many men of taste and ex- 
perience. It is therefore unnecessary, while noticing 
the various parts of a locomotive for the information 
of young drivers, to advocate any particular design or 
class of engine ; the object is simply to explain some of 
its principal constructive features and cardinal lines. 



PAET I. 

DESCEIPTIOl^ AND MANAGEMENT OF 
THE LOCOMOTIYE. 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 

Olassification of Locomotives. — According to the posi- 
tion of the cylinders, there are two kinds of locomotives, 
namely, inside-cylinder and outside-cylinder engines 
— the former having their cylinders between the frame- 
plates, and the latter having the cylinders outside the 
frame-plates. Locomotives are also distinguished as 
Single or Coupled y independently of their kind or class. 
When the driving-wheels are free to act by themselves, 
the engine is said to be a single engine. When the 
driving and leading wheels are connected by coupling- 
rods, the engine is said to be coupled in front ; and 
when the driving and trailing wheels, under the foot- 
plate, are connected, the engine is said to be coupled 
behind. These are known as 4- wheel coupled engines 
to distinguish them from goods-engines, which have 
6 wheels coupled. Tender-engines are such as have 
tenders attached to them for carrying supplies of fuel 
and water. Tank-engines are such as carry their 



BOILER. 9 

supplies of fuel and water on their own frames or on 
the boiler — -on the top, at the sides, or underneath the 
boiler. Locomotives which are carried upon a 4-wheeled 
truck or bogie, either before or behind, are known as 
bogie-engines. By means of the bogie, an engine with 
a long wheel-base can be made to run yery safely and 
steadily, at high speed. With the assistance of the 
bogie also, an engine may traverse a sharp curve nicely 
and without excessive friction. 

The Boiler. — The boiler consists generally of six 
parts, namely, the barrel, fire-box shell, fire-box, tubes, 
smoke-box, and chimney. 

Barrel. — The barrel is made of three rings of plates, 
frequently arranged telescopically, so that the barrel in 
such cases is largest in diameter near the fire-box. One 
object of this arrangement is to maintain plenty of 
water over the fire-box when the engine is suddenly 
stopped. When the longitudinal seams are made with 
butt-joints, that is when the planed edges of the plates 
come together flush, a strip of iron, called a butt- 
strap, is riveted to the plates to connect them. The 
circular seams are generally made with lap-joints. All 
rivet-holes are drilled. The barrel is secured to the 
smoke-box tube-plate by means of a solid angle-iron 
ring ; and the tube-plate is formed with a flange turned 
to a small radius, to which the smoke-box is secured. 

Fire-hox Shell. — The outside fire-box, or shell, is of 
the same brand as the barrel ; the sides and top of this 
shell are sometimes formed of one plate, extending from 
the foundation-ring on one side over to the foundation- 
ring on the other side ; the front plate is united to the 
barrel without the intervention of angle-iron, which 
formerly was extensively employed ; and the back 



10 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 

plate, in which the fire doorway is formed, is flanged 
and riveted to the inner surface of the large plate 
forming the sides and top. 

The bottom of the shell, just described, is formed 
either horizontal or sloping at the bottom, according to 
design. 

Fire-box. — -The inside fire-box, in this country, is 
generally made of the very best copper, with the 
maker's name stamped on the plates ; the side and 
top, like the outer shell, are very often in one plate ; the 
tube-plate is thicker than any other part of the fire-box, 
for it has more pressure to resist, or rather more work 
to do, being the support of about 200 tubes, carrying 
half their weight. The back plate is usually dished at 
the fire-door. The fire-box is put together with iron 
rivets, and placed inside the outer shell, to which it is 
fastened by means of a wrought-iron ring at the 
bottom and another at the fire-hole. These rings, the 
former of which is known as the foundation-ring, are 
of the very best iron, and are carefully fitted between 
the fire-box and the shell, so that after these are 
riveted together they are perfectly steam-tight. 

The walls of the fire-box are further secured to the 
shell by rows of copper stay-bolts. The top or crown 
of the box is also secured and strengthened, either by 
stay-bolts or by wrought-iron ribs placed fore and aft 
of the box. The ribs, when employed, have sling-stays 
attached to them, riveted to the shell ; so that, whenever 
a fire-box happens to be burnt, and so weakened, the 
crown of the box is prevented from being driven in by 
the pressure of the steam. The tendency of the top of the 
box to fail by overheating is very commonly shown, and 
it proves that the nature of the copper has been injured. 



BOILER. 11 

Tubes. — The tubes are, in most engines, made of 
brass of No. 10, 11, or 12 B. W. G. (which means 
Birmingham wire-gauge). They are expanded and 
made fast by a tube-expander, and ferules are after- 
wards driven in at the fire-box end. Sometimes the 
ferule is made slightly larger than the bore of the tube, 
but is reduced and made to fit the bore by being cut 
through with a saw. The circumference of the ferule 
is reduced by as much as the thickness of the saw, and, 
when the ferule is pressed together, it enters the tube ; 
then, by its elasticity, it binds the tube tightly into 
its place in the copper. It is found in practice that 
when tubes 1|- inch external diameter are employed, 
and placed about f inch apart, they give good propor- 
tions for making steam. 

Smoke-box. — The sides and top of the smoke-box are 
generally of Stafibrdshire brand. The smoke-box is 
secured to the boiler by means of the flanged tube- 
plate, and the front-plate is joined to the frame- plates 
by angle-irons. The smoke-box door is dished, and 
fitted with a pinching- screw and cross-bar ; the carriers 
for the latter are riveted inside the smoke-box, and they 
can generally be removed for the purpose of making 
examination or of repairing inside. 

Chimney. — The chimney is by some locomotive build- 
ers made slightly larger at the bottom than at the top, 
in order to obtain an even vacuum and to compensate 
for the condensation of the exhaust steam as it ascends 
the chimney. The cap on the top is not ornamental 
only ; it is intended also to turn aside the wind, so as to 
facilitate the escape of the exhaust steam and the smoke. 
When the chimney is worn into holes near the top, the 
wear is, as a rule, a sign that the blast strikes it there, 



12 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE, 

because of the blast-pipe not directing tbe current clear 
of the chimney. 

The smoke-box and the chimney are two very im- 
portant members of a locomotive ; they to a certain 
extent control the size of the orifice of the blast-pipe. 

Boiler-mountings. — Boiler-mountings include the 
various plugs, whistle, gauge for the water, clack-boxes, 
safety-valves, &c. 

The safety-valves and seatings are invariably made 
of gun-metal. When spring-balances are used, it is a 
mere matter of choice with the builder what size of 
valve he adopts ; it does not follow that because a valve 
is large it will ease the pressure within the boiler more 
promptly than a smaller valve. A small valve can 
be made to discharge in a given time as much steam as 
another, even 3 or 4 inches larger, by attaching to it a 
suitable spring-balance and lever, such as to allow the 
valve to rise through a greater distance than a larger 
one. Mr. Ramsbottom's safety-valve consists, in fact, of 
a pair of valves fitted into two brass pillars, pressed down 
by a cross-bar with a spiral spring attached to the 
centre of the bar between the two valves — an arrange- 
ment that cannot be locked. The valve is prompt in 
discharging any quantity of steam of excessive pressure. 
When the end of the lever is pressed upwards by the 
driver, it eases the valve nearest to him ; and when 
pulled downwards, it eases the other valve. 

Regulators are of several kinds, and they are some;- 
times fixed in a dome over the fire-box, or over the back 
of the centre ring of the barrel ; but in many cases they 
are placed at the junction of the boiler and the smoke- 
box, as when there is no dome. The pipes for convey- 
ing steam to the cylinders are of copper, excepting the 



FRAMING. ]3 

elbow-pipe placed on the outside of tlie tube-plate in the 
smoke-box, which is of cast iron, and forms the connec- 
tion between the copper steam-pipes in the boiler and 
those in the smoke-box which lead to the cylinders. 

It is scarcely necessary now to occupy any more space 
with the boiler, except to remark that, after it is fitted 
up complete, it is, before being fixed permanently in the 
frame, tested by steam and by hydraulic pressure. 

From the foregoing remarks, it is clear that the boiler 
is quite independent of the frame and the machinery. 
The boiler is placed in the frame by means of a hydraulic 
lift. It is supported on the frame by expansion angle- 
irons riveted to the sides of the fire-box, and by the front 
tube-plate which rests on the back ends of the cylinders. 

Recent practice does not approve of running the 
motion-plate up to the bottom of the boiler. 

The smoke-box is now riveted to the frame, and thus 
forms a permanent attachment between the boiler and 
the frame. 

Framing. — The framing consists principally either 
of two or of four slabs or plates of iron. If the fram- 
ing have only two slabs, the engine is known as a 
"single-frame engine ;" and if the frame be made up 
of four plates, or two slabs at each side, the engine is 
known as a "double-frame engine." But whether double 
or idngle, the frames have very important work to do. 
At the places where the cylinders and the axle-box 
guides are fastened, the depth of the frames is increased. 
As a rule, they extend from the front bufier-beam, 
alongside the fire-box, to the end of the foot-plate. 

In the earlier locomotive engines, the frames stopped 
short at the fire-box shell. Some fire-box shells had a 
fearful lot of hard straining to resist, for the framing 



14 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMC/nVE. 

was rigidly bolted to them, so also were tlie drag- 
plates, and the angle-iron which supported the foot- 
plate. Fortunately it is not so now. 

Machinery. — Cylinders. — The cylinders are formed 
of cast-iron of the first quality. In inside-cylinder 
engines they are bolted between the frame-plates — by 
turned bolts with counter- sunk heads. The holes are 
carefully drilled, to be perfectly round, and the bolts 
are made to fit the holes with a great degree of exact- 
ness. The frame-plates are further braced by the 
motion-plate, by transverse plates before and behind 
the fire-box, by the foot-plates, and by the wrought- 
iron bufier- plates fore and aft of the engine. A few 
minutes' inspection of an engine will prove that many 
of these parts are joined to the frames by angle- iron. 

It is essentially requisite that the centre-lines of the 
cylinders, after these have been fixed in the frames, 
should run parallel throughout their entire length. 
There are other things also to look out for : — The 
centre-lines of everything else connected with or afiected 
by the action of the steam must be, in accordance with 
the nature of the work, either parallel or exactly at 
right angles. For instance, the slide-bars must be 
parallel with the cylinder, and all the axles must 
be exactly at right angles to the lines of the cylinders, 
valve-faces, &c. In a word, the engine has to be built 
square, and not like a Bridgenorth election, all on one 
side. 

Horn-hlocks. — The horn-blocks are got up true on 
their faces, and fitted with axle-boxes, when all the 
centres for the axles can be marked ofi". Meanwhile 
the fitter may be engaged in erecting the slide-barSj 
pistons, and motion or gear. 



MACHINERY. 15 

Guide-bars. — Mr. Stroudley uses cast-iron for slide- 
bars, with good results. The piston generally in use 
consists of a body of brass, with two c^st-iron rings — 
one of Mr. "Wakefield's good ideas. 

Bessemer steel is largely employed for guide-bars, 
piston-rods, connecting-rods, and coupling-rods. The 
gear is not unfrequently selected from the very best 
Yorkshire scrap tyres, case-hardened at all the working 
parts, and finished bright. 

Crank- axle. — The crank- axle is either of steel or 
iron ; the latter is very much admired for the purpose 
by some builders, as steel knows no compromise or 
surrender. The throws are forged and slotted out at 
right angles to each other, so that when one big-end is 
on one of the dead centres, the other big-end is under 
the full pressure of the steam, being exactly either 
on the top or the bottom centre. 

Eccentrics. — The crank-shaft is fitted with four 
eccentric-sheaves, two for working the engine in fore- 
gear, and two for back-gear. The positions of these 
sheaves, in relation to the crank, are due to the move- 
ments of the valve being in advance of those of the 
crank. As the slide-valve is about half stroke when 
the big-end is at the end of its stroke, a little considera- 
tion will show that the sheave is fixed at about right 
angles, or a little in advance of that position, to the 
crank. The exact position for the sheave ma}^ be found 
thus : — When the crank is placed on one of the dead 
centres, a line is drawn to show the centre-line of the 
web or crank-cheek ; a circle is then described around 
the centre of the axle, equal in diameter to the travel of 
the slide-valve ; from the centre of the circle at the side 
opposed to the crank -arm, a distance is marked ofi" equal 



16 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 

I 

to the sum of tlie lap and tlie lead. Suppose, for in- 
stance, that the lap is 1 inch and the lead | inch, making 
together If inch. At this distance from the centre a 
perpendicular line is drawn, intersecting the circle 
above and below the centre-line of the crank-web. 
The two points of intersection show where the centre- 
line of the eccentric must fall, for forward and for 
backward motion. 

Ex2')ansion-Unks. — The expansion-links, to which the 
eccentric-rods are attached, are frequently formed to a 
radius equal to the length of the eccentric-rod. The 
box-link is formed to a radius equal in length to the 
valve connecting-rod. Allan's link is straight. 

The kind of expansion-link which is generally 
adopted by English locomotive builders is the curved 
open link, furnished with carriers for the lifting-links 
on the weigh-bar shaft — varying the periods of admis- 
sion of steam by shifting the link on the block. 

The horizontal motion of the link is communicated 
by the joint action of the eccentrics. At the centre of 
the length of the link it is a minimum, when it is equal 
to twice the linear advance of the eccentric, and it in- 
creases towards each end of the link. The movement 
is conveyed directly through the block to the slide- 
valve, and the valve receives its maximum travel when 
the eccentric-rod occupies a position in a straight line 
with the valve- spindle. A jaw, on the front end of the 
valve- spindle, is made to clip the expansion-link and 
" block ; '' and the valve-spindle is supported by a 
guide, either cast with or bolted to the motion-plate. 
To the back ends of the spindles are attached the slide- 
valves for regulating the distribution of the steam to 
the cylinders. 



MACHINERY. 17 

Steam-pipe and BIasf-2^ipe. — In first-class workman- 
ship, the joints of the steam-pipe and the blast-pipe 
are made with a scraping-tool, without cement. The 
blast-pipe is fixed truly concentric with the chimney, 
that the exhaust steam may be discharged straight up, 
without unduly impinging on the sides. The nature of 
the action of the blast is worth investigating; it is 
identical with that of the injector. 

The exhaust steam, discharged up the chimney, has 
the efiect of inducing the air out of the smoke-box, 
and thus creating a partial vacuum. The vacuum is 
filled by gases from the tubes, which in their turn are 
supplied from the fire-box, whilst the fire-box is sup- 
plied with air from the ash-pan. Hence it is that a 
smoke-box, which draws air by leakage through the 
door, deprives the fire of a portion of its draft, in so far 
as the vacuum in the smoke-box is supplied from the 
wrong end of the engine. The better to counteract the 
unbalanced external pressure which results from the 
vacuum in the smoke-box, the door of the smoke-box 
is dished or buckled — a process by which its power of 
resistance is greatly increased. 

Feed-pumps. — There are two kinds of feed-pumps, 
long-stroke and short-stroke. The body of the pump 
is of gun-metal. The ram of the long-stroke is gene- 
rally fastened at one end to the crosshead, or, as in 
the case of the " Terriers," it is screwed into the end of 
the slide-block. In the short- stroke pump the plunger 
— not ram — is most usually of brass, and it is worked 
either from an eccentric on the crank-axle or from 
a pin in the driving-wheel. Yery few short-stroke 
pumps are now put into new stock. 

There are three and sometimes more valves adapted 

c 



18 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 

to a locomotive pump. There is one on the side of the 
boiler, near the smoke-box, known as the " top-clack.'* 
This position is selected so that the boiler may be fed 
at the coolest place. Top-clacks must not be examined 
while the steam is up — a necessity which some men 
understand pretty well from experience, by having been 
severely scalded. The middle-clack is situated just 
above the pump and ram, and prevents the water re- 
turning to the pump-barrel after having been expelled 
by the ram or the plunger. The bottom-clack is fixed 
below the pump, and as the ram commences to enter 
the barrel the clack closes on its seat, and thus pre- 
vents the water in the pump from returning to the 
tender, out of the way of the advancing ram. The 
wai;er occupying the pump is consequently shot up 
through the middle clack, and flows into the boiler. 
If there be air in the pump, it does not work, for want 
of water. In consequence of a tight gland a pump has 
stopped working, owing to the accumulation of air 
in the pipes, which is separated from the water by the 
churning action to which it is subjected by the ram or 
the plunger. 

The Injector. — Steam is admitted into the injector 
(Fig. 1) through a cock on the top or the side of the 
boiler, to obtain steam free from water. When this 
cock is open, steam can enter the injector through a, 
and occupy the space b surrounding the spindle c. 
The spindle is finished conically at its lower end, and 
forms a steam-tight valve at D, controlling the egress of 
the steam into the lower portion of the injector. When 
the wheel e, on the end of spindle c, is moved to raise 
the spindle, steam rushes through d, past the mouth of 
the inlet-pipe x leading from the water in the tank 



INJECTOR. 



19 



The current of 
steam, by the suc- 
tional action, in- 
duces or draws the 
air out of the pipe 
X — relieving the 
water in the pipe 
of the atmospheric 
pressure, and there- 
by forminof a ya- 
cuum into which 
the water rises, by 
yirtue of the at- 
mospheric pressure 
aboye the water in 
the tank. 

When the water 
comes in contact 
with the steam, 
whose yelocity is 
yery high — 1,700 
feet per second, or 
1,157 miles per 
hour — the water 
is instantly carried 
along by the steam 
through the nozzle 
F, and beyond the 
yalye g, on the pipe 
leading to the boiler. 
The water, on com- 
ing in contact with 
the steam, condenses 



STEAM REGULATOR 




Fig. 1. — Injector. 



20 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 

it considerably, but not before tbe steam has imparted 
to the water a velocity equal to about 90 miles per 
hour. The motion of the water at that speed, is 
sufficient to force it into the boiler against the pressure 
of the steam and water inside the boiler. H is the 
overflow-pipe, through which the water escapes when 
the injector is turned off, either by the spindle c being 
screwed down, or when the momentum of the combined 
jet is not sufficient to lift the top- clack against the 
pressure within the boiler. This deficiency may be 
caused by the jet of steam from the boiler being in- 
sufficient in volume, when its velocity is wholly 
absorbed by the water. In this case, the steam-pipe 
requires to be made larger or to be cleaned out, or the 
volume of water must be reduced. 

Slide-valves. — There is no subject about a locomotive 
engine that young drivers delight to talk about more 
than valves. It is their favourite topic, though there 
is no other subject about which they have so much mis- 
giving and conscious uncertainty. Is not this a fact ? 
Yalves are Latin, Algebra, and Greek. Many of our 
young enginemen, when they know their engines are 
" blowing through " — not knowing what it is exactly, 
or where it is — report such matters as " valves and 
pistons want examining." This covers the whole box 
of tricks, and helps them over their difficulty. Let us 
hope that such reports, made under such circumstances, 
will soon become things of the past. 

It will, then, after the above remarks, be well if 
valves, ancient and modern, form our next subiect. A 
driver may be able to work his engine with creditable 
economy, keep time, and all that kind of thing ; but so 
long as he is a comparative stranger to the action of 



SLIDE-VALVES. 



21 




the valves, he feels within himself that one thing is 
needful. Such thoughts fre- 
quently occupy the minds of 
young enginemen. 

The annexed Fig. 2 illus- 
trates the old slide-valve, now 
out of use. It is shown here, 
because it will aid in explain- 
ing the meaning and functions 
of lap and lead. The position 
of the excentric, in relation to 
the crank, for working the 
valve is also shown, for con- 
venience, above the crank, on 
the right, a is the valve, b the 
cylinder, C the back port, d 
the front port, and e the ex- 
haust port ; F the cavity of the 
valve. The valve is shown in 
the position which it occupies 
when the piston is at the ter- 
mination of the front stroke, 
whilst the crank is on the back 
dead-centre, near the fire-box 
casing, and the centre of the 
excentric is vertically over the 
centre of the axles, or at right 
angles to the crank. 

The excentric, as shown in 
the sketch, would work or 
move round the centre of the 
crank- axle, ahead or in ad- 
vance of the crank, in the di- 




Fig. 2.- -Old Slide-valve. 



22 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



rectlon of the 





Fig. 3. — Modem 
Slide-valve. 



arrow, to let steam into the cylinder. The 
piston also moves, commencing its back 
stroke, and at the same time the steam - 
passage, communicating with the cylinder 
at the other end, is uncovered to the ex- 
haust. There are two defects about both 
these movements of the valve, which are 
now remedied in modern practice, illus- 
trated by the diagram. Fig. 3. First, the 
steam is now admitted, slightly before the 
piston commences the stroke, and the 
steam thus acts as a cushion for the piston, 
assisting in stopping it, and reversing its 
movement — with a fine efi'ect at high 
speed. Secondly, the steam is released 
from the cylinder before the piston ter- 
minates the stroke ; and by this timely 
exhaust excessive back pressure on the 
piston is prevented during the return 
stroke. 

When the improved valve. Fig. 3, was 
first tried, it was the means of reducing 
the coal-bill twenty -five per cent. — a 
result which, it may be imagined, caused 
extraordinary surprise. The difference 
between this valve and the old valve con- 
sists in the addition of lap at each end 
of the valve, with lead to the eccentric. 
The valve mav be described as the same 
valve as in Fig. 2, except that it is 
lengthened at each end ; and, instead of 
just covering the outer edges of the front 
and back steam-ports, c and d, it over- 



SLIDE-VALVES. '^'^ 

laps them both, a a is the lap on this valve ; ani if a 
driver states that his engine has valves with -I of an 
inch of lap, he means us to understand that when the 
valves stand in the position of half- stroke they over- 
lap the steam-port by that much at each end, back and 
front. 

Looking at Fig. 3, it will be observed that, "in the 
modern valve, while the crank is on the back dead- 
centre, as shown for the old valve, Fig. 5, the centre 
of the excentric for the new valve is shifted farther 
ahead of the crank. The amount of this additional 
advance varies with the lap, for it is necessary to bring 
the edge of the lap-valve over the edge of the steam- 
port, when the piston is on the centre, into such a 
position as to open the port to the extent of J inch or 
i inch. 

With regard to lead, suppose that the engine is per- 
fectly at rest, with the big-end straight out on the back 
dead- centre, and the edge of the valve right over the 
edge of the steam-port. If the centre of the excentric- 
sheave be moved | inch further from the crank, the 
valve is also moved an ^, and opens the port that much, 
before the piston commences the stroke. This is lead. 
When a driver states that his engine has valves with 
an I of an inch of lead, he intends us to understand 
that the valve opens the steam-p ut J inch just as the 
piston has finished its stroke. 

The general principles of lead and lap may be briefly 
summed up thus : — 

Lead. — The lead of a valve is the amount of opening 
which the valve permits to the steam-port when the 
piston is at the end of its stroke, the opening being 
given to enable the steam to fill up the steam-port and 



24 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 

clearance, and to act as a cushion upon the piston, so 
causing it to reverse its motion easily and without 
noise. 

Lap. — Lap is the amount by which the valve ex- 
ceeds the extreme width over the cylinder-ports ; pro- 
viding means for cutting off, and also for expanding, 
the steam during the stroke. After the steam is cut 
off by the valve, it is shut into the cylinder until the 
valve has travelled onwards, by the amount of its lap, 
when the inner edge of the valve opens the steam-port 
on the exhaust side, and the steam instantly leaves the 
cylinder and ascends the blast-pipe. The determina- 
tion of the amount of the lead and the lap rests with 
the engine-builder ; generally, for a high speed of 
piston, 1 inch lap and \ inch lead are adopted. Outside 
lap is a great friend to the locomotive ; it enables an 
engine-man, by altering the travel of the slide by 
means of the link-motion, to cut the steam off before 
the piston has performed one quarter of its stroke. 
Inside lap is given for the purpose of preventing the 
locked-up steam from escaping too early. By deferring 
the release of the steam, the expansive working is pro- 
longed; but if inside lap is carried too far, it may 
reduce injuriously the time of release for the steam 
from the cylinder, and so give rise to back pressure. 

Inside Lead. — Inside lead, or clearance, has the oppo- 
site effect to that of inside lap, by causing an earlier 
and freer escape of the steam from the cylinder ; but as 
the steam is not confined in the cylinder so long, as a 
matter of course, it shortens the period of the expan- 
sion. 

Compression. — There is one more element of the 
working of the slide-valve, and that is compression, 



AXLE-BOXES. 25 

whicli is due to the exhaust steam not being all cleared 
out of the cylinder when the valve shuts the exhaust- 
port. The valve is then going one way and the piston 
in the opposite direction. The action of the piston-head 
on such locked-in steam is to push it into the port and 
the space termed the clearance, where it is compressed 
until the valve, which, while travelling the amount of 
the lap, was the cause of compression, lets the steam into 
the cylinder again. Finally, for each stroke of the piston, 
there are four periods of the distribution of the steam 
effected by the slide-valve : 1st, the Admission, when 
steam is admitted into the cylinder; 2nd, Expansion, 
after steam is cut off; 3rd, Release, when steam is 
liberated and goes up the chimney ; 4th, Compression, 
when the remnant of exhaust steam is shut into the 
cylinder and compressed by the advancing piston. 

Axle-boxes. — The axle-boxes are carefully fitted into 
the slides, or, as they are sometimes termed, horn- 
blocks. The brass-bearing is cast with a recess in the 
crown for the reception of white metal, to reduce the 
friction, and to facilitate the flow of oil to the journal. 
A keep of cast-iron or brass is placed below the axle, 
having a recess into which a sponge is sometimes intro- 
duced, for taking up the oil brought over from the top 
by the revolving axle. By this means no oil is wasted, 
and if, occasionally, the driver should forget to oil the 
bearing, the lubrication is continued by the sponge 
itself for some little time. 

The causes of hot bearings are various ; the following 
are a few of them. The keep binding against the jour- 
nal is one, too much weight is another, and a fast-box 
is a third. The cotton may be too nicely fitted in the 
syphon -pipe ; the cotton may be too far from the oil ; the 



26 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 



oil may contain glutinous matter, sucb. as india-rubber 
or resin ; tbe cotton may be in so great quantity as to 
fill tbe oil-cbamber, leaving room for but a small quan- 
tity of oil ; tbe cotton may be wet ; tbe cotton may be 
too slack, allowing tbe oil to sypbon too fast for tbe 
supply ; tbe cotton may be cboked with tallow and 
dirt ; tbe cotton may be right to-day but wrong to- 
morrow, as there is a fixed period after which it fails 
through ordinary wear. Sponge, cotton, and similar 

I 




^^ DehtL 

Fig. 4. — Laminated Bearing-spring. 



materials are porous ; and oil, water, and other liquids 
will rise in them. If the end of a towel happen to be 
left in a basin of water, it will, by what is called 
capillary attraction, probably empty the basin. On 
such a principle of action axles are generally lubri- 
cated. 

Sjorings. — The springs carry the engine. The leaves 
of a spring, made generally of mild steel, are kept 



SPRIN'^S. 



27 



together by a buckle; the thrust-pin, between the 
buckle and the axle-box, transmits the irregularities of 
the permanent way, through the wheels and axle-boxeS; 
to the springs. Underhung springs, below the axle, 
have a lip or eye forged upon the buckle, by means oi 
which it is fastened by a pin to the axle-box. Such 
springs are frequently fitted with neat S2Dring-links, oi 
socket-pieces, by which they are connected to the 
frames, and by means of which the weight of the 
engine is equally distributed. The leading dimensions 
of an elliptic spring are those of the length, the camber, 
the number of plates, and the thick- 
ness of each plate. (See Figs. 4, 5.) 

Wheels. — The wheels are generally 
of best selected scrap-iron, forged 
solid. The spokes are forged with T 
heads, and the boss of the wheel is 
formed by welding up the ends of the 
spokes, previously shaped to form a per- 
fect fit before being welded, with a 
washer on each side the rim, for the Fig. 5.— Conical 
tyre is afterwards made solid. The Searing-spring. 

wheels are said to be crank-bossed, when crank-pins are 
fitted into the wheels. The wheels are forced upon the 
axles by hydraulic pressure ; they are in many cases 
perfectly firm without the aid of keys. The tyres are 
heated for the purpose of being enlarged by expansion, 
and are then placed on the rim of the wheel and 
cooled. The tyres contract in cooling, and they are 
bound by the shrinkage firmly to the wheel ; after 
which they are turned in the lathe. 

Coupling-roch. — The connecting-rod and the outside 
coupling-rods are generally forged, each from one 




28 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 

solid piece of iron. Welds are thus avoided. The 
small end of the connecting-rod is sometimes fitted 
with a steel bush. "When it is not fitted too tight, 
and is properly attended to, it is an excellent job ; 
but when allowed to seize it may make a nice mess. 
It has been known to pull down all the motion, and 
to send the connecting-rod into the fire-box. 

Brick Arch. — The brick arch in the fire-box is designed 
to assist in the proper combustion of the fuel. It is ge- 
nerally formed to a versed sine or rise of 5 or 6 inches. 

Fire-bars. — The fire-bar bearers support the bars 
and the fuel. The fire-bars are of wrought iron, and, 
when cut, proper allowance is made for them to expand, 
without binding at each end against the fire-box. If 
this provision for expansion is disregarded, the bars will 
be liable to bend, and close together at some places, and 
ultimately to burn and drop into the ash-pan. Fire- 
bars should not be pulled up ; the clinkers should be 
removed from them by means of the splice or clinker 
shovel. Many first-class drivers run for weeks to- 
gether without making sufficient clinker to interfere 
with the steam. They break the clinker up, after 
which it will not set to the bar again ; and they spread 
it about the box to protect the fire-bars during the 
next trip, or they get it into the corners, where it is 
very serviceable in preventing cold air from rising and 
getting into the tubes. 

Ash-pan, — The ash-pan is a very important member 
of a locomotive engine. When it is kept sound and 
clean it is capable of doing much for the driver, ^j 
its instrumentality tons of fuel may be prevented from 
being wasted. The door or damper should be capable 
of shutting quite close. 



TOOLS, ETC. 29 

Blower. — The blower is, according to fhe best ar- 
rangement, fitted round tbe top of the blast -pipe. 
Bricks or cement is applied in the smoke-box to pro- 
tect the cylinders and the joints from rust. For this 
reason the joints are, as a rule, situated above the 
reach of moisture. 

Sand-lox — Sand-boxes are now most commonly made 
for dry sand, which is made to pass through disc- 
valves or ordinary cocks by means of a light lever 
under the control of the engineman. The handle of this 
lever is fitted in a sector- plate, which, with the revers- 
ing lever and damper-handles, is placed by the side of 
the driver. The remainder of the foot-plate furniture 
consists of the whistle-handle, the handles of the blower 
and cylinder lubricator, gauge-cock fittings, fire-door, 
and regulator. Turning to the tender, there are the 
feed-handles for regulating the supply of water to the 
boiler. These handles are connected to spindles, which 
are connected to the valves in the tender. These valves 
require to be fixed so that they may not be interfered 
with by pieces of wood^ waste, or other matter floating 
about. 

Cab. — The cab, which is a boon to engine-drivers, is 
furnished with plate- glass windows, set in polished 
brass frames, which, on some railways, are arranged so 
that they may be opened if required. 

Tools, 8fc., required for an Engine. — Before an engine 
joins a train, the following tools and articles are re- 
quired to go with it. 

A complete set of fireman's tools : — 

1. — Splice for getting clinkers out of the fire-box, and 
for drawing back the coals from under the brick arch 
in the case of a choked fire. 



30 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 

2. — Pricker for pulling up bars in cases of emer- 
gency. 

3. — Rake for cleaning out the ash-pan, and for 
raking the brick arch down, when it can be done. 

4. — Long chisel-bar for lifting and breaking a 
clinker. 

5. — Pinch-bar for rapping fire-bars and other 
purposes. 

6. — Shovel, coal-pick, and bucket. 

A complete set of driver's tools : — 

1. — Set of sjoanners to suit every size of nut and of 
plug in the engine. 

2. — Screw-jack, with ratchet or bar, in good working 
order. 

3. — Several plugs for the tubes, and a rod to suit 
them. 

4. — .Quarter, hand, and lead hammers. 

5. — Two cold chisels, and a few punches for knocking 
pins out of the motion, &c. 

6. — Large lamps (3), gauge-lamp, and motion-lamp, 
the latter fixed over the spindle-glands. 

7. — Two oil- feeders, two oil-bottles — one feeder for 
the driver and the other for the fireman ; one oil-bottle 
for general use and one to keep store oil, so as to have 
an extra quantity of oil on the engine in case of axles 
&c., running hot. 

8. — A quantity of flax, spun yarn, and tar band. 

9. — Half-a-dozen fog signals. 

10. — A few split pins and cotters of various sizes for 
eccentric-bolts, &c. 

11. — A few gauge-glasses. • 

12. — Some copper wire. 

13. — Some worsted. 



GAUGE-GLASSES. . 31 

14. — A copy of the Company's rules. 

15. — Service time-book for ttie current month. 

16. — A foot-plate motto — A place for everything 
and everything in its place. 

Some of the above articles may be dispensed with on 
short-train service. 

Tool-hox. — It is well for every driver to provide 
himself with a small tool-box, which is easily carried 
about, and is useful, either for putting in a gauge-glass 
or for fitting in a fresh split-pin in the motion or the 
brake-irons. It will be found a valuable aid when 
time presses ; when a glass, or a split-pin, or worsted, 
or wire, or other small store is wanted. When all these 
little friends are mixed up with spanners, coats, &c., 
much time may be lost in finding them ; but when they 
are kept together in a little box by themselves, no 
matter how dark the night may be or how much steam 
there is about, they can always be found ; and that is 
more than can be said in many instances when a gauge- 
glass goes ofi" " bang." The box should be long enough 
to take in gauge-glasses, and should be fitted with a till 
to hold them, about 6 inches wide by 4 inches deep, 
furnished with a lock and key. 

Gauge-glasses. — A few glasses should be cut to the 
exact length required for the engine, with india-rubber 
washers or flax in readiness for immediate use. 

It is not a wise plan to cut every glass in the engine 
to suit any one particular engine, because some one 
may want a glass unusually long, and the opportunity 
of showing another driver what a fine thing it is to be 
prepared with such things would be lost, to say nothing 
about the value of a glass to a man who has more 
• than a hundred miles yet to run. The proper length to 



32 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE. 

which a glass should be cut is such that it may not 
interfere in the least, either at top or bottom, with the 
passage into the boiler. It is cut by inserting a small 
round file, or a piece of one, within the bore or hole, 
to the point where it requires to be cut, and then 
scratching it all round with the point of the file. 
This place thus becomes the weakest place in the glass. 
With the file still in the hole, break the waste piece 
ofi", exactly as a notched stick is broken through. 



CHAPTER II. 

DETAILED DESCRIPnON OF THE LOCOMOTIVE, WITH 

KEY. 

The locomotive engine selected for detailed illustration 
in Figs. 6 to 6d is th.e " Grosvenor/' an express loco- 
motive, one of a very powerful class, specially de- 
signed and constructed by Mr. Wm. Stroudley, for the 
service of the London, Brighton, and South Coast 
Railway. It is a single engine, on six wheels, which are 
well distributed, with a large boiler of abundant steam- 
generating power, with cylinders of great capacity, 
and driving-wheels of moderate diameter. This loco- 
motive was constructed with extreme care, and the 
workmanship is as nearly perfect as possible. It is 
accompanied by a tender on six wheels, capable of 
holding a supply of 2,520 gallons of water, and 40 cwt. 
of coals. Notwithstanding its great capacity, this 
tender is so low that a tall man may stand on the 
coals without the risk of being knocked down by any 
of the bridges on the line. There are upwards of 
47 tons of metal in the locomotive and its tender 
together, and when they are in full working the 
gross weight with fuel and water amounts to 
59 tons. Notwithstanding the largeness of the quantity 
of metal consumed in their construction, the engine 
and the tender are remarkable for their shapeliness " 

D 



34 KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. 

and for the lightness of their movements. They are 
painted with a uniform coat of a mixture of gamboge 
yellow and dark claret, picked out in black and 
vermilion. 

The " Grosvenor " ran the first through train be- 
tween London and Portsmouth — a distance of 87 miles 
— in 1 hour 50 minutes. 

Frame. — The engine is constructed with inside lon- 
gitudinal frame-plates, giving inside bearings for the 
axles. The plates are securely bound together trans- 
versely, by several connections : two wrought-iron 
bufier-plates, one at each end of the engine, the 
motion-plate, and two transverse plates, before and 
behind the firebox and the cylinders ; and also by the 
running boards, which are each in one continuous piece 
from end to end of the engine. 

Boiler. — The plates for the barrel of the boiler are 
bent to a true circle, and the joints are butted, with 
straps both outside and inside. The rivet- holes in the 
inside and outside straps are countersunk nearly 
through the thickness, so as to shorten the parallel 
portion of the rivet, and to secure a good fit. The 
rivets are driven in by flogging hammers, and are 
brought much more closely home than they could be 
by ordinary hand or steam rivet- work. The front 
tube-plate is secured by an angle-iron ring to the 
boiler, where they are brought close together. There 
is also an inner angle-iron of the same section as the 
ring, at the upper portion of the inside circumference, 
to further support the plates and do away with longi- 
tudinal stays. The sides and top of firebox-shell are 
one plate, extending from the foundation- ring on one 
side over to th^ foundation-ring on the other side. 



BOILER. 35 

All tlie seams are double-riveted, except the cir- 
cular seams of the barrel and the vertical seams of the 
firebox, for which the lap of plates is 2J inches, with 
I -inch rivets, at a pitch of Ij inches. 

The angle -iron ring forming the man-hole has a 
butt-strap welded to its flange, so that the ring becomes 
very much stronger than those generally adopted by 
locomotive makers. It is of such a thickness as to 
bring up the sectional area of metal across the man- 
hole to an amount slightly in excess of the sectional 
area of the portion of the solid plate that is cut away, 
so that this man-hole is absolutely the strongest place 
in the boiler. 

The process of applying the stays to the roof of the 
firebox is commenced by placing an iron frame or 
mould round the firebox in the exact position to be 
taken by the shell of the boiler. Notches are made in 
one edge of this frame, to hold the end of a mandril 
which has a small tail-piece projecting from the end, to 
pass into the hole to be afterwards occupied by a stay. 
A smaller mandril, having a hole in its centre, is held 
on the inside of the firebox, being guided by the tail- 
piece of the outer one to a right line. These mandrils 
are then struck with a hammer, when they readily set 
the plate, one edge inwards and the other edge out- 
wards, so that after they are tapped the collar on the 
stay and its nut on the inside take a fair bearing. 

This operation is easily performed, and not one stay 
done in this way has been known to leak, notwith- 
standing that several fireboxes have been run so short 
of water as to melt the lead-plug. The crown of the 
firebox is lower at the back than at the front, next 
the tubes. Thus the roof -plate is covered by a greater 



36 KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. 

depth of water where the flame impinges with the 
greatest force. The sides of the box also slope in- 
wards, and offer a very good form for the escape of the 
steam formed upon the plates. The tube-plate is made 
wider than the back-plate of the firebox, in order to 
permit the full complement of tubes. To receive these, 
a part of the side-plate at each side is dished into the 
side water-space, to admit of the feruling of the tubes 
at the sides ; but the other portions of the side-plates 
are left plain, having a very wide water- space. The 
back end of the boiler is supported above the firebox 
by palm-stays, which are securely riveted to the outer 
shell, and also riveted by countersunk holes to the 
back-plate. 

Regulator. — The regulator is made upon a plan used 
by Messrs. Sharp, Stewart, & Co. for many years. It 
differs from this only in having a much larger central 
pivot, by means of which a much more even wear on 
the surface is produced, as the difference of surface 
between the inner and the outer rings is so slight that 
the wear is practically equal. In practice, these valves 
remain almost absolutely tight. They are relieved by 
a small cast-iron valve at the back, having an opening 
of 4 square inches of area. The large valve has an 
area of 10 square inches. 

There is a peculiarity in the arrangement of the stuff- 
ing-box and drivers' handle. The stuffing-box is made 
of brass, and is projected into the boiler. It is fitted 
with a spindle, also of brass, having a socket cast upon 
the end which is inside the boiler. This socket has a 
square hole to take on the end of the regulator-rod, 
and a collar to fit against the end of the stuffing-box, 
where it works like a valve, being held up to the sur- 



CYLINDERS AND VAL\^S. 37 

face of the stuffing-box by the steam-pressure, and 
being left free to adapt itself to the stuffing-box by 
the square socket, which is made an easy fit upon the 
regulator-rod, and acts as a universal joint. This 
stuffing-box gives no trouble ; the packing remains 
steam-tight for a year or two at a time. 

The stoppers for arresting the motion of the valve, 
when closed and opened wide, are cast upon the head 
of the regulator : superseding the ordinary ugly quad- 
rant on the back of the firebox. 

Safety-valves. — The safety-valves (Adams's patent) 
are 2i inches in diameter, with a lever of 18 inches, 
and a distance of 3| inches from the fulcrum to the 
valve. 

These valves act with great certainty, and they are 
sufficient to release the surplus steam under any cir- 
cumstances. It is found, in practice, that a short lever 
with a long spring acts better with even a smaller valve, 
than the old-fashioned combination of a long lever, 
large valve, and short spring-balance. 

Gauge-glasses. — The boiler is fitted with duplicate 
gauge-glasses, which are not only valuable as a check 
upon each other, and on the level water in the boiler ; 
but one of them continues serviceable should the other 
happen to be broken. 

Cylinders and Valves. — The steam cylinders are 
17 inches in diameter, with a stroke of 24 inches. They 
are placed at a distance of 2 feet 2 inches between 
centre and centre ; and the valve-faces, which are 
vertical, are 4J inches apart. It has always been a 
delicate matter to make room for large cylinders in the 
narrow space between the wheels of inside-framed 
engines, with due consideration to the length of axle- 



38 KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. 

bearings and other details. When the cylinders are 
brought close together for the purpose of affording wide 
bearings for the axles, the exhaust-way is restricted ; 
whilst any arrangement for placing the valves in other 
than a vertical position between the cylinders, with a 
view to the provision of free exhaust-passages, has 
always involved more or less complexity in the gear. 

It will be seen that the steam-ports and exhaust- 
ports are divided into two sets, the upper and the 
lower ; whilst the valves extend from the top to the 
bottom of the valve-chest, and cover both sets of ports. 
The steam escaping from the lower ports passes through 
a belt round the cylinder, and joins the exhaust from 
the upper ports at a point near the base of the blast- 
pipe. 

A portion of the exhaust is conducted by a pipe into 
the tender for the purpose of heating the feed water. 

The steam supply-pipes are in duplicate, one of them 
leading into the back of the valve-chest on the one side, 
and the other into the front of the valve-chest on the 
other side, thus obviating the employment of compli- 
cated passages, which are sometimes required for the 
purpose of connecting the ends of the valve-chest to- 
gether ; seeing that the middle region of the valve- 
chest is almost entirely monopolized by the valves. 
The slide-valves have x-inch lap outside, and |-inch 
lap inside, and they are set with |-inch of lead. They 
are provided with flanges on their lower edges, by 
which they slide upon the raised surfaces planed for 
them on the floor of the valve-chest, in order to prevent 
their wearing downwards and letting the edges of the 
ports out of line : a kind of wear which takes place with 
valves of the old construction. The cylinders are cast 



CYLINDERS AND VALVES. 39 

with, the inside covers, brackets for motion-bars, and 
stuffing-boxes, all solid — that is in one piece — doing 
away wdth a considerable amount of fitting and 
jointing. 

Instead of bolts for holding the cylinders together, 
a wrought-iron hoop, carefully slotted and finished, is 
shrunk on at the junction of the valve-spindle stuffing- 
boxes : making a very efficient union. 

In order to supply equal volumes of steam to the two 
ends of each cylinder for the front and the back strokes, 
compensation is provided for the inequality of the 
periods of admission caused by the oblique action of the 
connecting-rod, by placing the group of steam-ports in 
each face, in advance of the central position, to the 
extent of Ij inches, towards the front end of the 
cylinder. The length of the back steam-port is thus 
made to exceed that of the front port, to the extent of 
'3i inches, and the cubic capacity of the back port, 
wliich is of course filled with steam from the boiler for 
each stroke, is greater than that of the front port, by 
the amount which is required to balance the excess 
volume of steam nominally cut-off in the front end of 
the cylinder, over and above the volume cut-off in the 
back end. By means of such adjustment, which is 
specially adapted for the ordinary working position of 
the valve-gear, the crank is subjected to a more nearly 
uniform stress than that which would obtain with 
steam-ports of equal length. It is to be observed that 
the equalisation of the work of the steam on the piston 
is effected during the expansive period of the steam's 
action, after it is cut off, and before it is exhausted. 

The flanges by which the cylinders are united are 
planed with a tongue which is left on the one cylinder, 



40 KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE EISGIME. 

and a corresponding grooye in tlie other, at the bottom 
of the steam-chest. The parallelism of the cylinders 
is thus permanently secured ; besides whicb a good 
joint is made. 

Slide-Mrs. — The slide-bars are cast-iron of L section. 
They are bolted by their fore ends to projections on 
the cylinders, and near their back ends to the motion - 
plate, through wbicb the back ends are passed and 
overhung about 6 inches. Support is thus given to 
them near the centre of their length, where the greatest 
strain is thrown upon them by reason of the angularity 
of the connecting-rod. Besides, by the very forward 
position of the motion-plate, tbere is liberal clearance 
for the valve-motion, and long rods may be employed. 

Cylinder-covers. — The cylinder-covers are double- 
faced, with a recess in the centre round the line of the 
studs. The face is finished by a scraping-tool, and it 
makes a perfectly steam-tight joint. 

The cylinder- covers and the valve-cbest-covers are 
cast hollow, having air-spaces to prevent the escape of 
heat ; the outsides of the covers are cased in sheet-iron 
suitably formed, by wbicb the nuts and other project- 
ing pieces are covered and kept clean. 

Pistons and Piston-rods. — The steel piston-rods have 
cross-heads formed solid with them. The pistons, which 
are of gun-metal, are taken ofi*the rod for the renewal of 
the two packing-rings, or for examination. The piston 
is readily removed by unscrewing the brass nut by 
which it is held whilst the piston is warm, when it 
easily leaves its steep conical seat on the piston-rod. 

The piston-rods are made of special gun-steel, manu- 
factured by Yickers & Co., of such a quality that they 
can be extended 25 per cent, in length, and can be 



VALVE-GEAR 41 

doubled up close, while cold, without fracture. The 
ultimate tensile strength of the steel is from 28 to 30 
tons per square inch. 

Connecting-rod. — The connecting-rod is 6 f e 1 
6 inches long, and it is specially so designed that it 
may be finished by machinery ; the greater portion oi 
the work being done in the lathe and the drilling- 
machine. 

The little-end is held by a single cotter, which takes 
the whole of the work, and a bolt, which holds the 
ends of the strap firmly down to the rod, but which 
does not take any part of the longitudinal stress. 

The big-end brasses are bored and turned as simple 
concentric rings, and they are prevented from moving 
out of their places by the two main bolts. These brasses 
being, together with the whole of the rods, made to 
gauge, can be prepared in quantities to be kept in 
reserve for future use. When required they can be 
put into their places without the use of a file. Holes 
are drilled in the principal bolts to reduce the sectional 
area approximately to an equality with that at the 
bottom of the thread, and thus to render them uni- 
formly elastic. No check-nuts are used. 

Valve-gear. — The whole of the valve-gear is worked 
out with geometrical accuracy, and it is arranged in a 
simple and plain manner. The pins and wearing 
joints are large, and there is almost an entire absence 
of split-pins and loose washers, which so often bring 
locomotive-engines to grief. The centre lines are so 
struck that, when the gear is in the best working 
position, all the levers oscillate equally on each side 
of their several centres, thus producing the smallest, 
possible amount of distorted action. 



42 KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. 

The expansion and lifting links are forged from the 
best Yorkshire tyres, and are thoroughly casehardened 
at all the working parts. 

Excentrics. — Each pair of excentrics is cast together, 
in halves united by screws. They are not keyed on 
the axle, but they are driven by a projecting claw, 
which takes over the edge of the crank-arm. Special 
value is attributed to the avoidance of key-seats and 
notches in a crank- shaft. 

The manner of driving the excentrics by the crank-arm 
insures their always being accurately placed in position. 
The holes or recesses left for the screw-heads are, after 
fixing, run up with patent metal, which prevents the 
screws working loose, and facilitates the lubrication 
of the excentric-straps. 

The excentric-straps are of cast-iron, and are made 
sufficiently strong to retain their circular form when 
the strain of the valve is upon them. The bolts are 
placed as closely as possible to the excentric, and are 
made very long and elastic. The points of the strap 
at the joints are projected outwards, so as to form 
cantilevers, and thus to assist in stiffening still further 
the strap against distortion. The effect of this arrange- 
ment is, that the wear of the excentric-straps is in- 
credibly small. The surface between the strap and the 
excentric-sheaves is so large, in proportion to the load 
placed upon them, as to admit of a film of oil remain- 
ing between the two metals, and holding them entirely 
apart. 

Reversing -handle. — The reversing-handle and rod 
are of wrought-iron, finished bright and case- 
hardened. • 

Crank'-axle. — The crank-axle is of Yickers's steel, 



FEED-PUMPS. 43 

carefully annealed after the webs have been slotted 
out. 

Wheels. — The wheels are forged solid, of the best 
scrap-iron. The spokes are brought together in the 
centre, and the bosses are made by washers welded 
on the spokes. The ends of the spokes are made solid 
with the rim of the wheels. The wheels are keyed on 
the axles before the tyres are shrunk on. The tyres 
are of Krupp steel, made with a projecting lip fitted to 
the side of the rim of the wheel, and secured by 
screws. The counterweight is forged solid with the 
wheel. 

Axle-boxes. — The flanges of the axle-boxes are con- 
tinued upwards, so as to entirely close the side of 
the horn-block, and thus prevent dirt and foreign 
matter from finding its way to the working surfaces, 
and also to keep the axle-boxes perfectly upright. The 
axle-brasses are made of a square form on the outside, 
and they project downwards for a considerable distance 
below the centre of the axle, so that they may be sup- 
ported by the keeper, which fits up between the points 
of the brass, and so prevented from clinging to the 
journals. 

The brass is made to rest upon the journal by a 
narrow edge at the centre only about 1 inch wide, and 
it is free to follow the inclination of the axle when it 
is thrown off the level by 'irregularities in the road. 
The brasses so constructed are found to work very 
well. 

Springs. — The springs are constructed of mild steel, 
so soft that they will not break. 

Feed-pumps. — The engine is fitted with two pumps, 
worked direct from the cross-head. These pumps are 



44 KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. 

specially designed to pump liot water at higli speed, 
and they have been very successful. One of the 
principal features of the feed-pump consists in the 
large clack- area in proportion to the ram, giving a 
large area of escape, with a small lift, and requiring a 
very small pressure to lift the bottom clack and fill the 
pump with water. "When ball-clacks are used for 
pumps the weight of the valve is so great, in proportion 
to the area exposed for the feed- water to act upon, that 
the pump does not get a sufficient supply, and hence 
the difficulty of pumping hot water at high speed ; for, 
of course, the vacuum formed by the ram is but very 
slight. 

The clacks have spiral wings, or guides, thus turning 
partially round by the action of the water at every 
stroke, wearing the flat seats very evenly, and keeping 
perfectly tight. The beaters are formed with a very 
large area of surface, for the purpose of preventing the 
clack from striking the beater too hard. With the 
proportion given in these pumps, the two metals never 
come into absolute contact, the force required to drive 
out the volume of water between the two surfaces being 
sufficient to arrest the motion of the valves. This has 
been proved to be the case ; for there are many 
instances of pumps that had been working upwards of 
two years, in which the head of the clack was found to 
be discoloured, and had the marks of the turning-tool 
remaining. 

The air-vessel forming part of the pump, and in 
immediate connection with the clack, also operates to 
prevent percussion. 

The delivery-pipe to the boiler is made of small 
diameter, and it is found to be amply large enough for 



STEAM-BRAKE. 45 

tlie purpose. There is a small snifting clack on the 
suction-pipe of these pumps, to admit air, so that whilst 
the pump is supplied with as much water as is found 
necessary for the boiler, the remainder of the working 
barrel is filled with air, which is forced along with the 
water into the boiler, and still further tends to take off 
percussion. 

The pump-rams are of steel, secured direct into the 
slide-block ; they are found to work in this position 
with very little wear. One pump is in practice capable 
of supplying more water than is required for the boiler, 
although two pumps are provided. 

Lubrication. — The manner of oiling has been well 
considered. All the axle-boxes and the horn-plates 
are supplied with oil through pipes, from oil-cups 
fixed to the inner side of the wheel-splashers, to secure 
at all times a plenteous supply of oil to the working 
surfaces. The swabs on the glands of the piston-rods 
and the valve- spindles are likewise, and in a similar 
way, constantly furnished with sufiicient oil to lubri- 
cate the piston-rods and valve-spindles throughout the 
trip. 

Steam-hrahe. — It is necessary with fast trains to 
keep time by running at a high speed. This, how- 
ever, can only be safely done when the engine is 
provided with a very powerful brake that will act 
promptly when required, so that the train may be 
stopped at any point where the driver may be called 
upon to do so. This engine is provided with a brake 
consisting of one large brake-block placed in front of 
each of the driving and trailing wheels, connected by 
transverse rods at the bottom, to the end of which, 
outside the wheels, are attached two continuous rods 



46 KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. 

with other short transverse rods at the back end, 
extending to two short levers on the weigh- shaft 
placed across the engine, behind the firebox. 

On this weigh- shaft are fixed two levers, one of 
which is connected with a screw for the hand-brake, 
having slotted links to permit the motion of the lever 
independently of the screw if necessary ; the other one 
is attached to the piston of the steam-cylinder, which 
is bolted directly under the footplate in a vertical 
position. This cylinder is 9J inches in diameter 
and has a stroke of 6 inches. The weight of its piston 
is sufiicient, when the steam is taken ofi", to force the 
brake-blocks away from the wheels. The piston is 
controlled by a 3-way valve placed upon the front of 
the boiler, having a lever very conveniently arranged 
for the driver to operate. By turning the lever in one 
direction, steam is admitted below the piston ; and by 
turning the lever in the other direction, the steam is 
allowed to escape from below the piston, into the 
tender. By a judicious movement of the handle, the 
action of the brake may be modified in its intensity, 
varying from a slight touch of the wheels up to a 
pressure of two tons on each brake-block. This pres- 
sure is found to be nearly sufficient, but not quite so, 
to skid the wheels. The bottom of the cylinder is also 
provided with an inverted valve about J-inch diameter, 
which falls open by its own gravity, and remains open, 
allowing water to escape entirely from the cylinder, 
being placed a little lower than the bottom of the 
cylinder. 

Speed-indicator. — A speed-indicator, patented by Mr. 
Stroudley, is fitted to the engine. It consists of a 
small fan with straight arms, revolving in a brass 



THE CAB AND ITS FITTINGS. 47 

uasing full of water. The water is, by the centrifugal 
force of the fan, maintained in a vertical copper tube, 
terminated by a glass tube like that of a water-gauge. 
By the height at which the water stands in the tube, 
which is suitably graduated, the speed is continuously 
indicated. The fan is driven by a leather belt from 
the crank-shaft, as will be seen from the illustration. 

The Cah and its Fittings. — The cab, or covering for 
the engine-driver and the stoker, is erected over the 
foot-plate. It is furnished with sundry fittings, with 
a view to make everything exceedingly convenient for 
the engine-driver. Fixed by the side of him are 
handles for working the front and the back dampers, 
dry- sand boxes, and the waste- water cock at the 
bottom of the steam-chest. In front of him are the 
handles for the pet-cock of the pump, the blower, 
and the lubricator fixed on the smoke-box for the 
cylinders. 



48 



KEY TO THE LOCOMOTI\TE ENGINE. 




I— I 

a 

£« 

a 

o 

Q 



3- 
o 

PI 

o 
CD 

S-i 

PI 

o 



CO r— I 

O c5 






o -r-L 
t* C£) 

^ J 

o 
o 

o 



Hi 
p 

o 

H 

t-i 
Hi 



I 

CD 

fcb 



THE 



" GROSVENOR " 



LOCOMOTIVE. 



49 



LONGITUDINAL ELEVA- 
TION. 

Fig. 6. * 

2. V Barrel of boiler 

3. ) 

6. Smoke-box 

22. Chimney 

32. Spring balanca 

33. \ATiistIe 

34. Dome 

64. Exhaust-pipe 

70. Cab 

85. Brake-blocks 

87. Life-guards 

88. Trailing-axle and wheel 

89. Leading ditto 
(54. Drixdng-axle) 

O. Speed-indicator 

P. Splasher 

S. Sand-box 

T. Tool ditto 

V. Safety-valve 

W. Balance in driving-wheel 

LONGITUDINAL SECTION. 

Fig. 6 a. 

1. I Rings arranged telescopi- 

2. I cally, forming barrel of 

3. ( boiler 

4. Solid angle-iron ring 

5. Tube-plate 

6. Smoke-box 

7. Shell, or covering-plate 

8. Foundation-ring 

9. Throat-plate 

10. Back-plate 

11. Fire-door 

12. Covering-plate of inside fire- 

box 

13. Tube-plate 

14. Back-plate 

15. Stays 

16. Mouthpiece 

17. Stays from inside firebox to 

shell-plate 

18. Palm-stays 

19. Tubes 

20. Smoke-box door 

21. Pinching-screw 



22. Chimney 

23. Chimney-cap 

24. Blast-pipe 

25. Top of blast-pipe 

26. Balance-weight 

27. Wheel-spokes 

28. Front buffer 

29. Mud-plug ^ 

30. Safety-valve 

31. Ditto lever 

32. Spring balance 

33. Whistle 

34. Dome 

35. Regulator 

36. Steam-pipes 

37. Elbow-pipe 

38. Brick arch 

39. Fire-bars 

40. Ash-pan 

41. Front damper 

42. Back ditto 

43. Frame-plate 

44. Iron bu£fer-beam (front) 

45. Ditto ditto (back) 

46. See plan (cylinder) 

47. Cylinder, ports, valve 

48. Valve-chest 

49. Steel motion-plate 

50. Horn blocks 

51. Axle-boxes 

52. Slide-bars 

53. Connecting-rod 

54. Crank- shaft 

55. Big end 

56. Arm of ditto 

57. Expansion-link 

58. Weigh-bar shaft 

59. Valve-spindle 

60. Ditto rod-guide (see pbyri^ 

61. Pump 

62. Delivery-pipe 

63. Feed ditto 

64. Exhaust ditto 

65. Volute spring 

66. Draw-bar hook 

67. Lamp-iron 

68. Oil- cup 

69. Ditto pipes 

70. Cab 

71. Regulator handle 

72. Reversing-lever 



E 



50 



KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. 




THE 



" GROSVENOR " LOCOMOTIVE. 



51 



73. Draw-bar 

74. Ditto pin 

75. Steam-brake cylinder 

76. Hand-brake 

77. Sand-rod 

78. Front damper 

79. Back ditto 

80. Trailing- wheel 

81. Driving ditto 



82. Leading-wheel 

83. Spring 

84. Hand-rail 

85. Brake-blocks 

86. Waste water-cocks 

87. Life-guard 

88. Trailing-axle 

89. Leading ditto 
Z. Lead-plug 



HALF-SECTIONAL PLAN. 



i 



im 



i*~'i 



■"■5"^ 



Fig. 



6*. 



43. Frame-plate from end to end of engine 

44. Iron buffer -beam 
46. Cylinders 

50. Horn block, to carry axle-box and brass 

51. Axle-box and brass 

52. Slide bars 

53. Connecting-rod 

54. Driving-axle 

55. Big end 

56. Arm of ditto 

59. Valve-spindle 

60. Valve-rod guide 

61. Pump 

76. Hand-brake 
85. Brake-blocks 

88. Trailing-axle 

89. Leading-axle 

90. Piston-rod 

91. Ditto head, held on the rod by a brass nut 

92. Back-way ecc-rod 

93. Front ditto 

94. Ecc-strap 

95. Ecc-sheaves 

96. Tyre 

97. Lip on t}Te 

98. Brake-irons 

99. Foot-plating 
100. Transverse-stay 

A. Water-space between inside and outside fire- 

boxes 

B. Slide-block, with end of pump-ram screwed into 

the end 

C. Link-motion (see 57 long, sec.) 

D. Slide-valve-rod working-guide 

H. Inside journal, showing the axle is supported 

inside of frame-plates 
I. Cross-head, solid, with piston-rod 




The " Grosvenor." Cross Sections. 



15 Stays in walls of fireboxes. 18. Ditto from crown- plate to covenng- 
■nlate 19 Tubes. 23. Chimney-cap. 40. Ash-pan. 54. Crank-shaft. 55- -Bi^ 
end. 56. Arm of big end. 34. Dome. A. Water space. F. Nave of wheel. 
P P Splashers over driving-wheels. R. Eight side of engine. L. Lett ditto. 




Fig. 6 d.—The " Grosvenor." End View. 

75. Steam-brake handle. 33. Whistle-handle. 23. Chimney-cap. K. K. 
Weather-glasses. O Speed-indicator. E. Guard's bell. N. Oil for 
cylinder. X. Blower -handle. R- Eight side of engine. L. Left ditto, 
j M. M. Gauge-glasses. 

(. — ^ 



54 



KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. 



PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS OF THE ''GROSVENOR." 

With references to the Illustrations, Figs. 6 to 6 fi?. 



Nos. 1, 2, 3. Barrel— 



BOILER. 



Length ..... 
Diameter outside 
Thickness of plates . 
Ditto tube-plate 

Nos. 7, 9, 10. Outside Firebox — 

Length outside .... 
Breadth ditto .... 
Thickness of covering plate 

Nos. 9, 10. Thickness of front and back \ 
plates . . . . j 

Nos. 12, 13, 14. Inside Firebox (Longl. Section) 



ft. 

10 
4 





m. 
5 
5 

0| 
Of 



Long. 



Section. 



1 

0t^«- 



Of 



»> 

»» 
»> 
J' 

» 



Length inside at bottom .... 

Ditto ditto top 

Breadth ditto bottom .... 

Ditto ditto top .... 

Height — bars to crown — front . 

Ditto ditto ditto back 

Thickness of plates. ..... 

Ditto tube-plate .... 

"Water space, front at bottom 

Ditto ditto top .... 

Ditto sides at top .... 

Ditto ditto bottom 

Nos. 7, 12. Distance between crown of inside firebox and 

outside firebox, front 
Nos. 7, 12. Distance between crown of inside firebox 
outside firebox, back 

Number of crown stays . . 110 

Centre to centre of ditto, in copper-plate 

Diameter of ditto 

Centres of firebox copper-stays 

Diameter of ditto 

Pitch of thread on ditto 

Area of fire-grate, square feet 



ft. 
5 
5 
3 
3 
5 
4 









in. 

6 

2 

11 

4i 

01 

3 

6 

6 

3 



No. 17. 



No. 15. 



No. 39. 



and ) 



1 3i 



1 4| 



in. by 4i 
0| 
4 
01 
^i 



Surface of firebox, ditto 



19 
110-0 



No. 19. Tubes— 

Length .... 
Diameter outside 
Thickness, B.W.G. . 
Number .... 
Outside heating surface, sq. ft. 
Total heating ditto (fitto 



10 10 

10 and M 



1^ 

^4 



206 
1022 
1132 



)J 



THE " GROSVENOR LOCOMOTIVE. 



55 



No. 6. Smoke-box — 

Length outside . 

Breadth ditto 
No. 20. Diameter of door 

Thickness of plates 

No. 22. ChimneTj — 

Height from the rail . 

Diameter at hottom . 

Ditto at top . . • 
No. 24. Blast-piin — 
No. 25. Diameter at top . 

Area at bottom . 

Height from centre of boiler 

No. 61 plan. Fump — 

Number 

Diameter of ram 
Stroke 
sec. Diameter of delivery . 
Ditto of water supply 
Safety-valves — 

Diameter . 
No. 31. Total length of lever 

Centre of valve to fulcrum 
Effective load of lever, valve, 
and spring per square inch 
Number of valves 

No. 46 plan. Cylinder (Horizontal) — 

Diameter of cylinders . 

Length of stroke 

Centre to centre 
No. 36 long. sec. Diameter of steam-pipe (two) 
No. 90 plan. Ditto piston-rod 

Centres of valve-spindles . 

Diameter of valve -spindles 



No 
No 

No 



62 long. 

63. 

30. 



No. 48<7. 

No. 47 long. sec. 

a and b. 
c. 

Fig. 3. 



Ports — 
Length 

Breadth of steam 
Ditto exhaust 



Slide-valve — 

Travel . • 
Lead .... 
Lap outside 
Throw of excentric . 
Breadth of excentric . 
Length of excentric-rods 

No. 53 long. sec. Connecting-rods — 
Length 

Diameter at small-end 
Ditto big-end 







ft. in. 


• 


• 


2 1\ 


• 


• 


4 \\\ 


• 


• 


3 9 


• 


• 


Of 


• 


• 


13 2 


• 


• 


1 5 


• 


■ 


1 4 


• 


• 


4| 


90 sq. 


in. 




• 


• 


1 n 


2 






• 


• 


2 


• 


• 


2 


• 


• 


2 


• 


» 


2 


• 


k 


2^ 


^ 


« 


1 6 


• 


• 


3| 


140 It 


>. 




2 




1 5 

2 
2 2 
3 
2| 
5i 

If 

1 3 

i\ 

2 

4 

01 

0| 




6i 

• 


by 2| in. 
2A 
4 10 

6 6 

211 



3^ 



56 



KEY TO THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE. 



ft. in. 



Ditto of bolts at "big-end . 





21 


Ditto of cross-head gudgeon 





3 


D plan. Length of slide-block 





11 


Wheels— 






No. 82 long. sec. Diameter of leading- wheels 


4 


6 


81 „ Ditto of driving ditto . 


6 


9 


80 „ Ditto of trailing ditto . 


4 


6 


E Centres leading to driving 


8 





E Ditto dri^dng to trailing 


7 


9 


E Total wheel-base . . . . 


. 15 


9 


Between backs of tyres, leading 


4 


5* 


Ditto ditto driving 


4 


51 


Ditto ditto trailing 


4 


6^ 


No. 64 long. sec. Crank-axle — 






Diameter at centre .... 





7i 


F plan. Ditto in nave of wheel 





8| 


No. 55 long. sec. Ditto of crank-pin 





8 


No. 56. Crank-arm 


a by 4| 


in. 


H plan. Diameter of inside bearings 





8 


H Length of ditto .... 





8 


H Centres of ditto .... 


3 


Hi 

7l 


F Depth through nave of wheel . 





F Diameter of nave ditto 


1 


4i 


Nos. 89, 88. Leading and Trailing Axles — 






Diameter at centre .... 





6| 


Ditto in nave of wheel 





H 


Ditto of bearings 





7 


Length ditto . . . . 





8| 


Centres ditto . . . . 


3 


lU 


Depth through nave of wheel . 





7i 


Diameter of ditto 


1 


2i 


No. 43. Inside Frames — 






Distance apart inside 


4 


11 


Least depth 


1 


3 


Thickness 





1 


No. 65 long. sec. Driving Springs — 






Volute (2) 1 If long, diam. 





7^ 


No. 83 long. sec. Leading and Trailing Springs — 






Length ...... 


3 


6 


Breadth 





5 


Depth 





6| 


Camber, loaded 





H 


Centre of boiler from rail . 


7 


^ 


Foot-plate from rail . . . . 


4 





"Width of platform .... 


7 


2 


ton 


s cwt. 




"Weight on leading wheels . . 1( 


) 8 




Ditto driving ditto . . 14 


I 




Ditto trailing ditto . . b 


\ 12 




Total weight of engine empty . 3-' 


5 





CHAPTER III. 

. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD -WORKING ENGINES 
PERFORMING LONG RUNS. 

The " Pandora " Express Locomotive, by Mr. John 

Eamsbottom. 

The " Pandora " is an express passenger locomotive 
of the class of tlie " Lady of the Lake," designed and 
constructed by Mr. John Eamsbottom for working the 
Limited Mail and the Irish Mail trains on the London 
and North-Western Railway. The chief features of 
interest in the engines of this class (Fig. 6 e), from 
the engine-driver's point of view, are that they steam 
well and run well. It is a sight worth seeing, and 
not easily forgotten, to view these engines steaming 
away across the Trent Yalley — worthy of the descrip- 
tive pen of Elihu Burritt : 

" A tale Kke * Waverley ' we yet may scan ; 
But shall we read a lay like * Marmion.' " 

The steam-generating properties of these engines have 
been found by experience to be remarkably good. 
They will take a moderate load at express speed with a 
consumption of 22 lbs. of Welsh coal per mile. 

The barrel of the boiler is formed of three rings of 
plates T^-inch thick, arranged telescopically. The 
covering plate of the firebox is made to form a straight- 



58 



CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ENGINES. 




THE '' PANDOTIA " LOCOMOTIVE. 59 

backed boiler, tbe centre of wbicli is 6 feet 6f inches 
above the rails, and tbe mean internal diameter of the 
barrel is 3 feet lOJ inches. 

The copper firebox is 4 feet IJ inches long, 3 feet 
6 inches wide, and 5 feet 4 J inches high. 

The copper stay-bolts miiting the shell to the copper 
firebox are 4 inches apart, centre to centre, vertically 
and lengthwise. 

The boiler is fitted with 192 tubes of brass If inches 
in external diameter, and they are placed J-inch apart. 

From the above dimensions we obtain for the tubes 
1,013 square feet of heating surface for the firebox, 
and 85 square feet of heating surface, and 14.9 square 
feet of grate. 

It therefore appears that the boiler is somewhat 
smaller than what is now generally made for heavy 
passenger traffic ; and it is necessary to explain that 
the " Pandora " class was designed and built by Mr. 
Ramsbottom many years ago, and when the traffic was 
much lighter ; but as the engines were models and 
favourites, it was thought desirable and worthy to give 
them a place in this volume. Subsequently, Mr. Hams- 
bottom designed other engines that steamed and ran 
admirably, of the 4-wheel coupled class, to meet the 
demands of the traffic requirements on the heavier 
portions of the line ; but the drivers never took to 
these engines as they did to the " Pandora*' class. 
This is like Englishmen ; they like to see big things — 
big ships, big bells — Big Ben — big wheels. Go to 
King's Cross station, Great Northern Railway, when 
one of Mr. Stirling's engines stands there, " champer- 
ing and foaming," waiting for the signal ; and then go 
to St. Pancras when one of Mr. Johnson's magnificent 



60 CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ENGINES. 

bogle- engines is going away ; and, although both en- 
gines are superb and designed for special work, the 
8-feet driving-wheel acts as a kind of magic and 
" brings down the house/' 

Turning again to dimensions : — 

The driving-wheels of the "Pandora" class are 
7 feet 7 J inches, cylinders 17 inches by 24 in. 

The piston, Mr. Ramsbottom's patent, has three 
grooves in it to receive three steel rings, each j-inch 
square, which keeps the piston steam-tight. These 
steel rings are sprung over the piston into the grooves. 

The safety-valves, " Ramsbottom's patent," consist 
of two 3-inch valves fitted into two brass pillars 
pressed down by a cross-bar with a spiral spring at- 
tached to the centre of the bar between the two valves 
— an arrangement that cannot be locked. The valve 
is prompt in discharging any quantity of steam of 
excessive pressure. 

When the end of the lever is pressed upwards by 
the driver, it eases the valve nearest to him, and when 
pulled downwards, it eases the other valve. 

The steam-pipe in the boiler is 5 J inches, and in the 
smoke-box 3f inches in diameter. 

The slide-valves are moved by excentrics having 
2 J inches radius, or 5 inches total throw, and con- 
nected by rods 3 feet 10 inches long, to a link of 
3 feet 10 inches radius. The valves have J-inch lap 
at each end, and 3*2"-i^ch inside lap, with j-inch lead. 

The orifice of the blast-pipe is 4^ inches in diameter. 
The chimney is cylindrical, 15| inches in diameter ; 
the top is 13 feet 1 inch from the rail. 

The connecting-rod is 6 feet 2 inches long, centre 
to centre ; the crank-pin, fitted into the crank-bossed 



)f 



THE " PANDORA LOCOMOTIVE. 



61 



driving- wlivsal, is 4 J inches in diameter, and the cross - 
head pin 2| inches in diameter — half the diameter oi 
crank-pin. 

The axles are all of wrought-iron case-hardened. 

Dimensions of Axles. 





Journals. 


Body. 


Ends in wheel 


Leading . . 
Driving . . 
Trailing . . 


6" X 10" 
7"X 7" 
6" X 10" 


5i" dia. 

^2 »> 
"2 »» 


7i" X 6i" 

er X 8i" 

7¥ X 6i" 



Wheel base 
Weight 



14 ft. 9 in. 

27 tons. 



Express Locomotive, by Mr. Patrick Stirling. 

The engine illustrated by Fig. 6/ may be accepted, by 
reason of its dimensions and the work it performs, as 
ably representing a good type of an English single 
engine. The cylinders are 18 inches by 28 inches, 
and the driving-wheel is 8 feet in diameter. Engines 
of this class run from London to Grantham, with the 
steam on, a distance of 105 miles, and, as Mr. John 
Hollingshead says in one of his " Odd Journeys,'* 
drag us "out of the sunlight into the mist, again 
out of the mist into the sunlight, past undulating 
parks rich with the red-brown tints of autumn ; past 
quiet pools and churches in among the hills ; past 
solitary signalmen and side stations, where weary 
engines rest from their labours ; past hurrying trains, 
with a crash and a whirl, and away." The above is 
the longest daily run without a stop, made in England ; 
performed day after day with complete success, much 
to the satisfaction of the " gods " who are in a constant 
state of migration between the Tweed and the Thames, 



62 



CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ENGINES. 




MK. Stirling's locomotive. 63 

and who enjoy a bold bit of enginemansbip. Tbe 
service done by these engines is well done, and the 
trains they work are very popular. 

The impression made by one of these beautiful me- 
chanical constructions upon any observer is one of 
admiration. Few indeed could withhold from it the 
praise due to a piece of work which is considered by 
well-qualified judges and by people of taste and autho- 
rity to be a masterpiece. It has marks of the '' go " 
about it, and is really a fine engine. 



Dimensions and Particulars of the 8-feet Passenger Engines 
OF THE Great Northern Railway. 

Outside Cylinders — 

Diameter 

Stroke ........ 



Diameter of driAong-wheels 

Wheel base — 
Bogie-wlieels, centres .... 
From centre of bogie-pin to driving- wheel 
From driving-wheel to trailing- wheel 
From trailing- wheel to centre of bogie-pin 
Extreme wheel base .... 



ft. 


in 





18 


2 


4 


8 





6 


6 


10 


9 


8 


8 


19 


5 


22 


11 



Heating surface in tubes . , 1043 square feet, external. 

■fi-..^Vv,-^ir TOO 



firebox . 122 



n tt UXUUUA . i.L£. jf ff 



Total . . 1165 

Weight on Wheels — tons cwts. qrs. 

Bogie leading ....... 7 

„ trailing 8 

Driving 16 

Trailing 9 10 

Total . . 40 10 



Capacity of tender for water . . . 2,700 gallons 

„ „ coal ... 3^ tons. 
Average consumption per train-mile of Yorkshire 
steam-coal 26 lbs. 



64 



CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ENGINES. 




MR. Johnson's express locomotive. 65 

Express Bogie-Engine, by Mr. S. W. Johnson. 

This very handsome express engine may be ac* 
cepted as a model of its class. It is specially well 
proportioned. The greatest degree of attention has 
been given to the perfecting of the design of the engine, 
even to the most minute details ; and the result of 
such well-directed study has been a beautiful form, 
commanding admiration as a mechanical achievement 
of the highest order. 

The class of engines here represented run very 
steadily at high speed, either on curves or on straight 
lines. They can draw 14 carriages at a speed of 50 
miles per hour from London to Leicester, a distance 
of 100 miles, without stopping intermediately. The 
line is constructed with gradients averaging 1 in 300. 
The fuel consumed on this work is 28 lb. of ordinary 
Derbyshire coal per mile. The boiler is fed by two 
of Gresham's non- adjustable single cone injectors, one 
of No. 7 size and one of No. 8. The No. 7 size 
injector is fitted on the left side of the boiler, and for 
ordinary work will, when continually in action, keep 
the boiler supplied with water. The No. 8 injector 
is turned on during heavy- working and in very rough 
weather ; or in case of the failure of No. 7. This 
arrangement of injector is generally adopted, providing 
a continuous supply and preventing the waste of water 
necessitated otherwise by frequent starting and stop- 
ping of the injector. 

The bogie of this engine is arranged on Adams's 
system. The tender is capable of holding 2,900 gal- 
lons of water, and carries about 4 tons of coal. 

Some of these engines are fitted with steam-brako 



66 CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ENGINES. 

on botli the engine and the tender. The chief dimen- 
wons of these engines are as under — ■ 

ft, in. 

Diameter of cylinder 16 

Stroke of piston ..... 2 2 

Diameter of wheel (coupled) ... 70 
Ditto ditto (togie) . ..36 

"Wheel base — centre of bogie to centre oi) , (^ g 
tracting axle .....) 

Heating Surface — 

Tubes 1,150 sq. ft. 

Firebox . , . . 110 „ 

1,260 „ 



Grate-area • • , 17| 



»» 



Differences of Sister Engines. — It is an old saying on 
railways that no two sister engines were ever built that 
would steam and race alike. This is true. The differ- 
ence cannot, of course, be attributed to the drawings or 
the templates from which the engines were made. It is, 
for the most part, due to the putting of the parts of the 
engines together ; for no two engines ever were put 
together geometrically alike ; and even when they are 
very nearly identical in the erection, they may be, and 
have been, made very unlike by so simple a matter as 
the construction of the brick arch by the *' brickie " in 
the firebox. Arches may be too long, too short, too 
high, or too low. They may also be rendered unlike 
by following slightly different lines in cementing the 
smoke-box — probably the most sensitive member about 
a locomotive engine. There are many other ways of 
explaining why a difference should exist between sister 
engines. It may be in the castings of the cylinders, 
In the copper of the firebox, in the valves, or in the 
chimney. But, whatever it may be, an engineer may. 



STEADINESS AND SAFETY. 67 

by close observation, be enabled soon to detect its true 
locality and its cause. 

Free Running. — To secure a free-running engine, the 
crank-axle, wben in its position, must be exactly at 
right angles to the centre-line of the cylinders, and 
absolutely parallel to all the other axles ; for when 
these important parts are not in line with each other, 
the want of parallelism occasions a host of calamities 
too numerous to be mentioned. It causes a sinuous 
motion. Want of parallelism excites a constant ten- 
dency to roll the engine in a curved path, always 
toward the same side, so causing the flange of one 
wheel to wear away rapidly, while the other wheel on 
the same axle may have its flange in good form. 

Steadiness and Safety. — To secure a steady and safe 
engine, the oblique action of the connecting-rod, which 
produces pitching and rolKng, by lifting the engine up 
when steam is on the piston, and dropping it again 
when it is exhausted, must be neutralized to a greater 
or less degree by suitable springs. Again, the fore^ 
and-aft movement of the engine which would arise 
from the reciprocation of the piston and its appendages 
— a movement independent of any unsteadiness by the 
pressure of the steam — is neutralized by the counter- 
weights which are placed between the spokes of the 
wheels. The leading wheels, which guide the engine 
laterally, are placed well forward, and to get the wheels 
80 placed the cylinders, in some engines, are inclined. 
In other engines, bogies are used, with horizontal 
cylinders, as, for instance, in the express engines built 
at Doncaster by Mr. Patrick Stirling (Fig. 6/), and 
those made by Mr. Johnson at Derby (Fig. 6^). 

The driving-wheels, or rather the crank- axle, is 



68 CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ENGINES. 

placed well backward toward the firebox, wbicb places 
the centre of gravity, and consequently a preponder- 
ance of the weight of the engine, in advance of the 
axle. By this arrangement the disturbing influence 
of the connecting-rod is subdued ; and, besides, a longer 
connecting-rod than can be got otherwise is admitted, 
which also contributes to reduce the pitching and 
rolling movements. 

The trailing-axle is placed well backward, and checks 
any pitching movement better than if it be placed more 
forward. The springs, at least for the leading and 
trailing axles, are placed well apart ; and they are of 
sufficient strength promptly to absorb the rolling motion. 

The height of the centre of the boiler from the rails, 
within reasonable limits, is not an element which affects 
materially the stability of the engine when running at 
high speed. There is no doubt, in fact, that the safest 
engines running are high-pitched. 

The distance from the centre of the trailing-axle to 
the centre of the leading-axle is the measure of the 
wheel-be,se of the engine. 



CHAPTER lY. 

TO SET THE SLIDE-VALVES. 

The slide-valves are set thus : — First, the valve is 
placed in the steam- chest, with the spindle attached, 
so that one edge of either the front or the back steam- 
port is just uncovered; and the position of the spindle 
is marked outside of the gland, and also upon the 
stuffing-box. The distance between these marks cor- 
responds to the distance between the two points of 
a trammel used by the valve-setter. The valve is 
shifted, and the spindle again marked, with the steam- 
port a little open, at the opposite end of the cylinder; 
the punch mark on the stuffing-box used in the first 
instance serves again ; and therefore, in this case, all 
that is required is to place the leg of the trammel 
into it and mark the spindle with the point of the 
other leg. 

This operation is also performed with the other 
valve ; and, all things being ready, the steam-chest 
cover may then be put on. After the valve- spindles 
are connected to the links and the eccentric- rods in 
their places, the next step is to try the engine over, 
with the reversing lever in the best working position, 
which is that in which most engines beat the best, and 
do the most work. 



70 TO SET THE SLIDE-VALVES. 

The engine is moved by pinch- bars, until one cross- 
head is nearly at the end of the stroke, when it is 
stopped. A perpendicular line is made by a steel 
scriber on the side of the slide-block and slide-bar, so 
that the engine may be put exactly into the same position 
again. Before the engine is moved another mark is 
made on the frame-plate, and also upon the face of the 
tyre of the driving-wheel, to be used, like the marks 
made elsewhere, to obtain relative points. In the 
centre pop in the frame one leg of a trammel is placed 
while the other is extended to the face of the tyre and 
marks it ; here another pop is made. The engine is 
again moved until it has passed the dead -centre, and 
the slide-block has reached the same position it occupied 
when it was before marked. This position is determined 
by the scribe marks on the slide-block and slide-bar. 
When this position is attained, the leg of the trammel 
is placed in the same centre mark in the frame and 
the other point of the trammel marks the face of the 
wheel at another place, which is fixed by a centre pop. 

Two relative points are thus obtained upon the face 
of the wheel, the distance between which is bisected 
with a pair of compasses, and a third point is made mid- 
way between them. The engine is thea moved back 
until one point of the trammel, with the other in the 
frame-mark, drops into the third or middle point of the 
three. On a little reflection, it will clearly appear that, 
when the above conditions are obtained, the engine is 
exactly on one dead-centre, with the connecting-rod 
and the crank in a horizontal line. Now, it is already 
known when the valve is open a little, from the valve- 
trammel and the marks upon the stuffing-box and the 
valve-spindle ; and, therefore, the valve-setter may 



TO SET THE SLIDE-VALVES. 71 

ascertain exactly, by means of tlie trammel, whether the 
valve is open or not, when the engine is on the dead- 
centre ; or, further, he can ascertain exactly, to a hair- 
breadth, the position of the valve in relation to the 
piston at any point of the stroke. 

The centres are all found in the same way ; and, 
when there is any difference in the leads, the eccentric- 
rods are either shortened or lengthened until the motion 
is " square." 

There is, however, another method of setting valves, 
when the dead-centres are found as above. Four 
wedges are provided and marked R.F., B.B., L.F., 
L.B. The first one, right front, is, when the steam- 
chest cover is off, inserted into the port as far as 
it will go, assuming that the engine stands on the 
right front dead-centre. The wedge is run up and 
down by hand in the opening, that it may be marked 
or scribed by the edges of the port and the valve. It 
is then withdrawn, and the amount of opening, gauged 
by the marks, by which the valve uncovers the port for 
steam, when the piston is in the above-named position, 
is clearly seen and may be measured. The piston is 
moved to the other centres, and the respective amounts 
of opening are obtained in the same manner. The 
wedges are then compared, and, being lettered, any 
difference in the leads is discovered, and is rectified. 

"When the valves are to be finally set the boiler 
should be warmed, and should have about two inches 
of water in the gauge-glass ; the motion also should be 
at a working temperature. Thus all uncertainty re- 
specting the expansive working of the steam is excluded. 
Moreover the engine may, in this condition, be moved 
freely by pinch-bars. 



CHAPTER Y. 

HOW TO BECOIME A MODEL ENGIJ^-DEIYER. 

The most important questions that can be asked by an 
aspirant of the foot-plate is, How can I best be taught ? 
and, How can I best learn locomotive driving ? 

To learn anything well, a great philosopher hath laid 
down three things most essential, namely, models, rules, 
and practice. 

The foot-plate of a locomotive engine is the only place 
where experience can be acquired of the ways in which it 
is possible for an engineman or an engine to go wrong. 

During the time that an engine is under steam with 
a train, everything seen, heard, felt, and smelt is capable 
of affording a lesson. On the engine foot-plate the eye 
is trained to distinguish different colours at considerable 
distances. The ear learns to detect the slightest varia- 
tion in the *' beats " and knocks about the machinery, it 
learns to distinguish the difference between the knock 
of an axle-box and the knock of a journal. The humar 
frame learns to distinguish the shocks, oscillations, &c., 
which are due to a defective road from those which 
are due to a defective engine. The olfactory nerves 
become from experience very sensitive, so as to detect 
the generation of heat from friction before any mischief 
is done. 



MODEL ENGINE-DRIVER. 73 

It is only whilst an engine is in steam and going at 
good speed that the rocks, coral-reefs, and sand-banks 
on railways can be seen and learned ; and the value of, 
and rank acquired by, an engineman, are proportionate 
to the pains that he takes to find them out, and to mark 
their dangerous position upon his chart. Just by so 
much as there is of this inquiring spirit within a man 
will he achieve success. 

It is very natural for those who are unacquainted 
with locomotive driving to admire the life of an 
engineman, and to imagine how very pleasant it must 
be to travel on the engine. But they do not think of 
the gradations by which alone the higher positions are 
reached ; they see only, on the express engine, the pic- 
turesque side of the result of many years of patient 
observation and toil. Among the masters of the iron 
horse we shall find models ; but they are not all models 
on the express engines. 

The Model Engine-driver. — A model driver is distin- 
guished for the fulness of his knowledge of the engine. 
He is possessed by a master-passion — a passion for the 
monarch of speed ; and whatever contributes to enlarge 
his stock of information concerning it, contributes to 
his happiness. Thomas Telford, who designed and 
erected the Menai Bridge, Conway, North Wales, used 
to say to his friends, when they endeavoured to intro- 
duce political topics into their conversation, ** I know 
nothing about politics ; talk about limeP What then .^ 
y^ hy, he was in his element. A model driver is just as 
much at home about engines as Thomas Telford was 
about *'lime." Pointing to any particular class of engine, 
or part of an engine, he can inform his friends that 
such an engine was built by Timothy Hackworth. 



74 



MODEL ENGINE-DRIVER. 



Further, he can tell them what railway engines every- 
where owe to that engineer. He can single out a 
Sharp's, a Wilson's, or a Slaughter's engine. " Look 
here," says he, " that big-end was in use when I was a 
boy : it went out of date, and now Mr. So-and-So has 
adopted it. This piston was brought into use by an 
eminent engineer, now retired, namely, Mr. E-ams- 




Fig. 7.— Puffing BiUy, 1825. 

bottom, late Locomotive Superintendent of the London 
and North- Western Railway. That radial axle-box 
is Mr. Bridges Adams's patent; this carriage- wheel is 
Mr. Mansel's ; that is the straight-link invented by 
Mr. Allan ; and that is the box- link." He is able and 
pleased to begin at '* Puffing Billy," 1825 (Fig. 7), 
and to trace the historical progress of the locomotive 
to the present time. 



CLEANLINESS. 75 

The model driver is a good fireman. A man may be 
a first-rate mechanic ; he may have worked at the best 
class of machinery ; he may have built engines, and 
have read all the published books on locomotive 
engines ; and yet, if he be not a good shovel-man, he 
must be classed with the men who, as Shakespeare says, 
are "of no mark or likelihood," for he will never be a 
first-rate driver ; his firing must be first-rate who pos- 
sesses the like quality of driving, for the power of first- 
rate firing is a qualification indispensably necessary for, 
and inseparable from, first-rate driving. For such 
reasons it is that, as a rule, mechanics make but indif- 
ferent enginemen. A good fireman knows when to put 
the coals on, hoiv^ and wliere^ and the right quantity 
required at each firing. 

A model driver is clean, and, depend upon it, his 
engine is clean also. The man costs the company less 
than other men in paper, and his engine costs the least 
for repair. Ask all the locomotive superintendents in 
Europe if this is not a fact. Cleanliness is said to be 
next to godliness. Upon a railway, it may with truth 
be said, that cleanliness is next helow the highest talent, 
and next ahove length of service. A clean driver fre- 
quently scales the ladder of progress much faster than 
a dirty driver, although the latter may have experience 
in his favour. There is something so very degrading 
about dirt, that even a poor beast highly appreciates 
clean straw. Cleanliness hath a charm that hideth a 
multitude of faults, and it is not difficult to trace a 
connection between habitual cleanliness and respect for 
property, for general order, for punctuality, for truth- 
fulness, for all placed in authority. It is for ever asso- 
ciated with a kindly feeling towards poor dumb animals. 



76 MODEL ENGINE-DRIVER. 

If we glance at those men who have raised them- 
selves into the position of first-class inspectors, drivers, 
and firemen, we shall find each individual blessed with 
some special qualification, but the predominating one 
will be found to be cleanliness. Did we ever see an 
engineman get on who wore dirty, greasy cap, coat, 
vest, and trowsers, shining like velvet. And, on the 
contrary, did it ever occur to us that the greatest tor- 
ments upon a railway, both to themselves and to others, 
are those who are habitually dirty, who carry the prime 
marks of their inner man outside. A model driver 
runs the most important trains, makes the longest run 
without a stop, makes the longest run with fewest stops, 
and he runs every trip with undeviating success, day 
after day. 

The '' Limited " and the " Irish " mails are two very 
important trains ; and the engine attached to the latter 
train ran for years, until recently, the longest dis- 
tance daily between two stopping stations without 
an intermediate stoppage — Holyhead and Chester, 
ninety-seven miles. 

Both of the above trains are run with marked punc- 
tuality. Moreover, some of the Crewe " engineers " run 
from Crewe to London and back in ten hours, a 
distance of three hundred and thirty miles, including 
a stoppage of three minutes at Rugby each way. It 
should be mentioned that they remain about two 
hours in London before starting , on the " down *' 
trip. This is superior running ; and, what is more, 
it taught others what was possible to be performed 
day after day, and all the year round, without any 
time being lost by the engines, or delays booked to 
" loco." 



BRIGHTNESS. 77 

How Successful Driving is attained. — A philosoplier 
has written " a frequent similar effect argueth a con- 
stant cause." What is then the cause of constant suc- 
cessful locomotive driving ? Not length of service, 
for it would be easy to give cases in which young 
drivers have eclipsed older drivers. JSTot because a 
man has served so many years upon the goods train, 
and been promoted, by order of seniority, to driving the 
passenger trains, for the best drivers upon all railways 
are those who have been promoted over the heads of 
others because of their brightness. " Promotion accord- 
ing to merit in this establishment," is a notice that 
should be posted in some conspicuous place in every 
running- shed in England. Chance never built an 
engine, and it can have nothing to do with the 
driving of an engine. Yet, when driver A retires, or 
dies a natural death, or is killed, driver B is promoted ; 
he may be as dull as ditch-water, and driver Y as 
bright as silver ; but on the chance death of A, never- 
theless, B is promoted. Driving, to be good, must be 
based upon rules and principles. He who strictly 
observes them, wins ; he who does not, loses. With 
the latter class all is unrertainty, the hand trem- 
bles upon the regulator, the eyes watch with painful 
anxiety the needle of the pressure- gauge, and gaze 
into the fire to find out its deficiencies, and are some- 
times stricken with blindness in the attempt. Nothing 
unpleasant of this kind occurs to an engineman who 
has a reason for every act performed, either by himself 
or his mate, upon the foot-plate. He works to rules 
and principles that have proved themselves, a thousand 
times over, safe, practical, and certain in their results. 
Sound rules and principles are absolutely sure in the 



78 MODEL ENGINE-DRIVER. 

effects of their application ; not riglit to-day and wrong 
to-morrow ; not riglit on a short trip and all astray on 
a long trip ; not riglit with, one particular engine and 
wanting with a different engine ; not right the first 
part of the trip and found wanting at the end ; not 
right with one class of coal and wrong with another. 
Under the guidance of sound rules and principles, the 
mind of the driver is free ; and he is enabled, under 
all circumstances, to handle the regulator with confi- 
dence, to travel with a boiler full of steam, and to 
finish with success. In a word, there are rules and 
principles which lead up to, and command the attain- 
ment of, successful locomotive- driving. 



CHAPTER VI. 

DUTIES OF AN ENGINE-DRIVER. 

Rales and Princijoles. — The Notice-Board. — Before 
going to his engine, every engineman should, for his 
own safety, as well as that of the public, visit the 
special and the general notice-board. By the non-observ- 
ance of this simple rule, on one occasion, a driver lost 
his life, and so also did his fireman. By incessant rain 
a river had become so swollen that, by the rush of water, 
the buttresses of a wooden railway bridge became shifted. 
The bridge was inspected, and one side of it was pro- 
nounced to be dangerous. Arrangements were made to 
work the traffic " single road," and " notice " of such 
arrangements was posted in the running-shed. The 
driver neglected to read the notice ; he ran his train 
past the man appointed to pilot him over, and got off 
the metals down an embankment. The regular fire- 
man came late on duty, and was sent home again, 
" until leant ed ; " an extra fireman was sent to do his 
work, and while the poor fellow, no doubt, was striving 
to do his best, and probably rejoicing to think that he 
had come down to the shed in good time to secure a 
trip, he was suddenly summoned into another world. 

After a driver has read the special notices, and made 
himself fully acquainted with them, and has also looked 



80 



DUTIES OF AN ENGINE-DRIVER. 



at the weekly lighting-list again, lie proceeds to 
his engine. An inspection of the weekly lighting-list 
is important. Two drivers have been known to go off 
the same shed, chattering with each other, and when 
they got to the station, they found, in some strange 
way, that they both wanted to hook on to the same 
train. 

Inspection of the Engine from the Foot-plate, — When 
on the foot-plate, the^rs^ thing that requires the driver's 
attention is the level of the water in the gauge-glass. 
He should ascertain whether the level, as it appears, 
shows correctly the height of the water within the 
boiler, by opening the lower cock in the usual manner. 
On being satisfied that the boiler is safe, he at once 
takes upon himself the responsibility of looking after 
it ; and should anything prove to be wrong afterwards, 
he alone can be called to account for it. He should 
also observe what pressure of steam there is in the 
boiler, what is the condition of the fire, how much coal 
there is in the tender, and its quality ; and, lastly, he 
should make sure that the tender is properly filled with 
water. 

When a driver sees that his fame and his prospect as 
a first-class locomotive driver rests with himself, and on 
the condition in which he ventures to take his engine 
to a train, there is very little doubt that he will dis- 
cover that his success depends in no small degree upon 
the way in which he examines his engine. In a word, 
he will feel that his reward is dependent upon his own 
industry, and that his case is no exception to the 
proverb, " Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he 
also reap." 

It may appear sufficient to some drivers to sow 



INSPECTION OF THE ENGINE. 



81 



anyhow — by halves, roughly, or unsystematically ; but 
such sowers generally reap pains and penalties, to 
their sorrow. 

A model driver, however, knows from experience and 
reflection, that the only means by which he acquires 
and maintains his sovereignty over his engine consists 
in habitual, thorough, and systematic inspection ; for 
in no other way is a man to become a model driver. 

Inspection of the JEngine, over a Fit, in Shed. — It is a 
good and safe rule 
to examine an en- 
gine over a pit be- 
fore leaving the 
shed ; and, when- 
ever it is done 
properly and regu- 
larly, the habit is 
unmistakably the 
mark of a thorough 
driver. Whoever, 
on the contrary, 
thinks that such 




Fig. 8.- 



-Position of the Cranks for the In- 
spection of an Engine. 

painstaking is unnecessary, does not yet, certainly, 
comprehend the secret of success in every calling of life. 
That an engine may be properly examined over a pit, 
it is necessary that it should be placed in such a posi- 
tion that every part of it may be seen and inspected with- 
out having the machinery moved. The annexed figure 
(8) is intended to show in what position the cranks 
should be placed to secure this advantage. The brake 
should be screwed hard-on, the cylinder-cocks should 
be open, and the reversing-lever should be out of gear. 
Many excellent diivers have lost an arm by neglecting 

G 



82 DUTIES OF AN ENGINE-DRIVER. 

to place the engine under the above-named conditions 
before going underneath to make their examinations. 

The examination, to be complete, should be com- 
menced at one specified point, and conducted syste- 
matically all round the engine, until the driver returns 
to the place where he began. In general, the only 
tools which he requires to carry with him are two 
gland spanners and one set-pin spanner. The two 
former should be alike, having one end made to fit the 
piston-gland nuts and the other for the spindle-gland 
nuts, for by this arrangement means are provided for 
locking the nuts. The other spanner should have one 
end made to fit the set-pins, which hold the keys in the 
big-ends and the little-ends, and the other end to fit 
the nuts on the big- end cotters. 

The inspection should commence at the trailing 
engine-axle, on the driver's side ; and the best rule is 
to examine everything, not forgetting the fact that 
more engines break down and detach themselves from 
their trains in consequence of bolts and split-pins 
working out than from any other cause. After the 
driver's side has been properly scrutinized, the under 
side of the engine next claims attention. The driver 
should begin at the crank-shaft, taking his stand, where 
it is possible to do so, between the shaft and the fire-box 
whilst he is testing the bi4ts and nuts connected with it. 

Big-cnds. — Big-ends require to be fitted brass-and- 
brass to work well, and to be well cottered or bolted 
up, but with a sufficient slackness on the crank-bearing 
to allow of their being easily moved sideways by hand, 
so that a little room may be left for the expansion of the 
journal by heat. Before a brass of any kind is tightened 
up, it is advisable to mark the cotter — on the underside, 



BIG -ENDS. 83 

generally — that it may show, when it is driven down, 
how much it descends at each blow. In performing 
this operation a lead hammer should in every instance 
be used. It looks like mischief to see anything else 
used on work got up nicely. 

Big-end brasses do best, wear longest, and knock 
least, when tightened up a little at a time and often, 
instead of being allowed to run until they thump 
alarmingly. With proper attention they seldom run hot. 

Big-ends require plug-trimmings made of copper 
H'ire and worsted. The wire should be from four to six 
inches long, doubled and plaited in the middle several 
times, and, in fact, very nearly the whole length ; 
leaving a bow at one end which requires to be cut at 
the middle, and to have the cut ends opened out. The 
worsted is then wound over and over the two ends 
until the proper thickness is obtained. When fixed in 
the syphon pipe, the trimming should just clear the 
journal at one end, whilst the other end should be | inch 
or i inch helow the top of the syphon-pipe, so as to form 
a very small reservoir for oil in the pipe, above the 
worsted or trimming. These plugs require to be ad- 
justed to pass about four drops of oil per minute. 
Trimmings of the same kind are also required for the 
eccentrics and the outside-rods ; but everywhere else 
tail-trimmings are needed. These are extremely simple ; 
the worsted is placed on the middle of a straight piece 
of copper wire, which is then doubled and plaited 
several times, to bind the worsted just sufficiently to 
hold it. It is placed within the syphon-pipe, and 
pushed down to a position just clear of the axle, whilst 
the ends of the worsted lie in the oil. This trimming 
will supply lubrication as long as there is oil in the 



84 DUTIES OF AN ENGINE-DRIVER. 

well. When possible, whilst the engine is standing 
or is placed in the shed, such trimming should be 
pulled out of the syphon-pipe, and placed on one side 
in the cup or the axle-box, until the engine is about to 
be worked again. Before replacing them, it is advisable 
to pour a little oil down the pipe, to allow time for the 
krimming to commence working. The adoption of this 
precaution assists, iu many instances, in preventing the 
axle from cutting — a contingency which may arise 
from the sluggishness of the oil in the oil-chamber, 
caused sometimes by frost, or by the presence of gluti- 
nous matter. For such a reason it may be some little 
time before the oil begins to circulate, especially when 
the trimming is partially choked ; and it is for this 
reason that, frequently, trimmings suddenly refuse 
to lubricate, and are wound up in a flare. Worsted 
is much cheaper than the lifting of an engine, and 
some thousands of hot axles would be prevented if 
drivers would only change a dirty trimming for a 
clean one a little more frequently, or see that it 
is done. When the spring-pin rests upon the axle- 
box-tep, and the trimming is difficult of access, it 
is even then a matter of only a few minutes to place a 
screw-jack under the bufier-beam, and take the weight 
off, to admit of the renewal of the worsted. 

Little- ends. — Little-ends fitted with steel bushes re- 
quire scarcely any supervision, excepting what is 
required with the oil-feeder : those which are fitted 
with brasses held with gibs and cotters require the 
same attention that has been recommended to be given 
to big-ends. 

Eccentrics. — When the eccentrics are being examined, 
particular attention should be bestowed upon the bolts, 



ECCENTRICS, GEARING, ETC. 85 

nuts, safety- cotters, and the set-pins and keys whicli 
hold them in their proper position, well to their 
work. The bolts that hold the two halves of each 
eccentric-strap together should always nip tightly, for 
not only do they help to maintain the lead of the valve, 
but any slackness, on the contrary, which they may 
have detracts very much from the efficiency of the 
engine. The eccentric-straps should be let up as often 
as may be required, and should not be allowed to work 
with a knock. 

Inside-springs and Axle-boxes. — Inside-springs and 
axle-boxes require their full share of inspection, espe- 
cially the interior of the latter, if it be left to the fire- 
man to oil them ; for whatever he oils the driver alone 
is responsible. The top of the axle-boxes and the 
bottom of the boiler should be free from dirt. 

Gearing, — When the engine stands in mid- gear, the 
examination of the " links'' can be done under the eye. 
That part of the machinery known as the motion is 
held together by pins, and not by nuts or keys, which 
require to be well looked after. It is astonishing what 
numbers of times these tiny split pins have brought the 
" iron monarch '* and his guide to grief — a fact which 
we all know, more or less ; and therefore it is well to 
remember that where many have failed caution is 
most necessary. 

Glands. — The first thing to be done respecting glands 
is to see whether they stand fair with the rods — this is 
an important point. When they are quite square, one 
spanner should be held in the left hand, on the gland 
stud-nut nearest to the gland, and the other spanner 
should be held with the right hand upon the lock-nut, 
which should be screwed close up to the first nut. 



86 DUTIES OF AN ENGINE-DRIVER. 

Every gland should be done in the same way each time 
that the engine leaves the shed ; and drivers running 
long trips should repeat the examination before they 
attach the engine to the train for the return trip. 

Piston-rodf 8fc. — The piston-rod crosshead-cotter, 
the valve-spindle crosshead-cotter, and the pump-ram 
crosshead-cotter, when they have split pins underneath, 
require to be attended to evety time the engine goes out 
of the shed. 

In some kinds of engines, the leading axle-boxes are 
sometimes full of water after the boiler has been washed 
out. When such is the case, the water should be mopped 
out with a piece of waste or with the end of a cloth. 

Ash-pan. — When the examination of machinery has 
been finished underneath, the fireman should open the 
ash-pan door, or damper, so that the driver can have a 
good view inside the ash-pan. It should be nicely 
raked out, especially in the corners, where most firemen 
neglect it ; and a first-class driver will see that his 
mate performs at least this part of his duties to his 
satisfaction. It is not unfrequently the case that, in 
consequence of the ash-pan having been imperfectly 
raked out, the hot cinders roll out of it when the engine 
is at work, and, after coming in contact with the 
ballast, rebound into the wood work about the boiler, 
and set on fire the lagging. Further, the driver will 
also see that each fire-bar is well down on the cross- 
bearers, and that the fire is bright and free from 
clinkers. The presence of clinker can be detected by 
observing that the fire looks black or dull. A clean 
ash-pan, with grate-bars well down on the cross-bearers, 
makes a driver feel, when called upon to give his engine 
the " stick," in consequence of a strong side-wind or of 



SMOKE- BOX BRAKE. 87 

extra traffic, that the source to which he must look for 
deliverance from the " lost time list " is perfectly sound 
and trustworthy. 

Smoke-box. — AVhen the driver has finished his in- 
spection underneath, his first business, when standing 
at the fireman's side of the engine, is to see that the 
chimnej^-end, or, more properly speaking, the smoke- 
box door, is securely fastened. Sometimes, after the 
cross-bar has been taken out to get at the wash-out 
plug, or the tubes, it has been put in again wrong side 
outwards ; and although the handles of the door may 
have been screwed up tight, still the door was not tight. 
But the driver, when he examines the door, and the 
position of the hands on the screw, can see at a glance 
how matters stand. The door should be made air- 
tight, in order that plenty of steam may be made. The 
fireman's side of the engine requires the same careful 
overhauling as should be given to the driver's side : 
springs, spring-hangers, hornstay-bolts, splasher-bolts, 
sand-pipe, feed-pipes, and everything that can possibly 
come to pieces, should never escape inspection. 

Brake. — The brake-screw demands special notice, for 
the constant duty discharged by it, especially upon 
engines working into terminal stations. When it is 
neglected and allowed to get into bad working order, it 
18 just as liable to strip the thread when entering a 
terminal station as it is at some country place, where 
no risk or damage need follow from its inefficiency. 
The way to test the brake is to turn it on so that it 
fetches the brake-blocks just up to the tyres of the 
wheels, and then observe, as it is taken off, the dis- 
tance traversed by the handle of the brake before the 
screw begins to slack, the blocks from the tyres. The 



88 DUTIES OF AN ENGINE-DRIVER. 

driver will then have no difficulty in forming an opinion 
respecting its condition, especially if lie thinks about 
the matter — a new screw and nut would move the 
blocks instantly when the handle, or hand-wheel, is 
turned either *' on" or " off." Many failures have oc- 
curred in consequence of the working out of the split- 
pins in the brake-irons. But it is impossible for them 
to work out if they are properly opened and looked 
after. Beware of split-pins. 

Screw-shaclde. — The screw-shackle at the back of the 
tender must be examined every time the engine is to 
go out. To do this, and to see that its connections 
under the tender are in proper working order, the 
driver should stand in the pit. After having satisfied 
himself that his engine will stick to the train, barring 
unforeseen accidents, he should proceed as far as the 
trailing engine-axle, under the foot-plate, and examine 
it, with the draw-pin and its cotter, the feed-pipes, 
side-chains, and everything else that he can see thai, 
might possibly become uncoupled. All that now re- 
mains for inspection is the driver's side of the tender, 
beginning at the trailing-end and concluding this 
minute but absolutelv essential examination at the 
leading left-hand tender-axle. 

To put a gauge-glass in quickly, after it is put into 
its place, a driver should keep by him, in the little box, 
a small round piece of wood, which should be put on 
the top of the glass and the nut then screwed down on 
the top of the wood one or two turns : this will be 
found to keep the glass in its right place during the 
operation of packing, and it will do away with the 
troublesome tendency of the glass to lift up, when the 
packing in the top is being screwed up steam-tight. 



CONDITION OF FIRE IN SHED. 89 

Examination of tlie special notice-board, and of the 
engine both over and off the pit, coupled with a well- 
selected and properly arranged set of tools for the use 
and convenience of the fireman and the driver, have 
everything in them calculated to ensure the engine 
against a mishap ; but there is one more point that claims 
special attention, and which must be perfection before 
a start is made, and that is the fire : it must be right ! 

Condition of the Fire in the Shed. — There is nothing 
on which a driver's good name, success, and future 
prospects depend so much as on the condition of the 
fire at the beginning of the day's work. The old 
saying, that a good beginning makes a good ending, is 
very true of locomotive driving. If the fire is not well 
burned through at the start, however good the abilities 
of the driver may be, the consequence of its defects 
will be felt not only throughout the trip, but its in- 
fluence will extend to the consumption list, and affect 
the driver's position on the face of it, to be seen and 
read by all men. 

It is a habit with some firemen to arrive late on 
duty. They never think of coming on duty an hour 
or so before their booked time, even for the sake of 
having an excellent fire to begin the day's work with. 
Such individuals will of course in time be made drivers, 
but they never do anything sufficiently good to induce 
their foreman to push them on to the best running 
engines or express trains. 

On the other hand, if a fireman allows himself 
abundance of time to get his engine readj^, works with 
heart and soul, works as though the engine would stop, 
fail, and get short of steam if it was not for his exertions, 
depend upon it such an one is destined to make his 



90 



DUTIES OF AN EXGINE-DRIVER. 



mark on tKe foot-plate, on the coal-list, on the minute- 
list, and on those placed in authority over him. 

Examination after arriving in Shed. — On arriving at 
the shed the engine requires to be thoroughly examined. 
The valves and the piston-rings should be tested. This 
is very important ; although many a man has been 
made a driver without his foreman having taken the 
trouble to show him how to test them. Yet the driver 
has, in some instances, had a good blowing-up for 
booking complaints against pistons when the valves 
were amiss: this is a great hardship very common upon 
some railways. 

To test the valves and the pistons without moving 
the engine, and to test them separately, both of the 

little-ends must stand 
opposite each other and 
as near to the motion- 
plate as it is possible to 
get them ; when one 
crank will be above the 
axle and one below it, 
whilst they will be 
both at the same dis- 
tance from the back of 
the fire-box, as in 
Fig. Sa. If, in this 
position, the left crank 
be above the axle, 
the engine leads by the 
left-hand crank ; if the right crank be above the axle, 
the engine leads by the right-hand crank. Suppose 
the engine is a right-hand crank engine, in the above 
described position, if steam be turned on whilst the 




Fig. %a. — Position of the Cranks for 
testing the Valves and Pistons. 



TO TEST VALVES AND PISTONS. 91 

reversing-lever is in full forward gear, it will test ' the 
right-hand piston from the back. 

If steam is put on with the reversing-lever in full 
back gear, it will test the left-hand piston from the back. 

If steam is put on with the reversing-lever in the 
centre out of gear, that will test the valves. If the 
engine is a left-hand crank engine, the left-hand piston 
is tested first, with the lever full over in forward gear ; 
and the right-hand piston is tested with the lever in 
full gear backward. For the valves, the lever is at the 
centre, the same for either crank. It may be observed 
that by this method the piston-rings are tested at the 
back only. To test them from the front the little-ends 
require to be placed opposite each other, above and below, 
as near as possible to the cylinders ; the leading crank 
will be below the shaft, and its piston will be the first 
to be tested with the reversing-lever in full gear forward. 

Sometimes a blow is heard at one end of a cylinder 
and not at the other end. This is frequently caused by 
a crack or air-hole in the steam-port, leading into the 
exhaust, and allowing the steam to blow through it into 
the chimney. 

If a piston fitted with two rings have one of them 
broken or worn slack, a driver can, after a little practice, 
decide, on the foot-plate, whether the broken ring is the 
front or the back ring. 

The smoke-box door should be opened, steam turned 
on, and all the joints and pipes certified to be in proper 
working order. The blower should be put on and 
tested, the tallow-pipe examined, and the ashes and 
the tubes examined. As the engine gets out of order, 
the ashes increase in size and quantity, even whilst the 
load remains about the same. 



CHAPTER VII. 

DUTIES A^H) TRAINING OF A FIREIMAN. 

Before a fireman is placed with a driver on pas- 
senger work, he should have served some time on 
shunting engines, and been employed for a few years 
on the goods traffic ; and before being placed second 
man in charge of an express engine, he should have 
done at least 100,000 miles on slower trains, and have 
been passed by the superintendent for a driver, so as to 
be fully capable of taking charge of the engine in case 
of accident to the driver. It has been mooted even by 
some foremen that very young hands should be taught 
by the oldest of the drivers ; but such a course would 
be highly dangerous, and when it is, fortunately, not 
attended with disastrous consequences, the least that 
can be said of it is, that it exhibits, on the part of the 
person who sends green hands on express engines, a 
want of practical experience on the foot-plate. An 
express driver has quite sufficient to do to attend to the 
signals and the working of the engines in his charge, 
and his fireman should be quite capable of working the 
fire and feeding the boiler with water, independent of 
any instructions from the driver. 

Before taking his place on an express engine, a clever 
fireman — and he should be the cleanest and sharpest 



TRAINING OF A FIREMAN. 93 

to be found — has generally furnished his mind with 
various foot-plate information. He has never allowed 
any of his former mates to look, touch, say, or do any- 
thing without asking the question, " Why do you do 
that, mate ? " so as, when possible, to discover the 
principle which prompts each action. He has never 
seen the cylinder cover, the steam-chest cover, or the 
dome off, but he hastened to satisfy his anxious in- 
quiring mind. When the fitter has been working at 
his mate's engine, taking big -ends down or what 
not, he has willingly stopped and assisted ; and by 
these means he has learned how to uncouple an engine, 
learned the position of the valves at various points 
of the stroke, learned to test both them and the piston - 
rings, learned how to make a joint, and in fact exer- 
cised his mind and his talent, as well as worked his 
shovel. 

In the case of young men who have served their 
apprenticeship in the shops, less time in firing on goods 
trains will, in some instances, sufiice before they join 
express drivers. But before mechanics can be trusted 
with an engine, or even before they can trust themselves 
with one, the following are the principal things they 
require to know thoroughly : — 

1. — How to make up a proper fire in a locomotive 
fire-box. 

2. — How to handle the shovel when the engine is 
running. 

3. — How to learn " roads " and signals. 

4. — How to calculate the effect of the weather on 
the rails. 

5. — How to manage an engine and train on varying 
gradients. 



94 DUTIES OF FIREMEN. 

6. — How to have full control of an engine and train 
at full speed. 

7. — How to work the steam expansively and yet 
keep time. 

8. — How to " brake" a train up in the least possible 
time. 

On long trips it is essential that the best firemen 
should be employed, as they are supposed to arrive 
before the driver, and to make up the starting fire in 
his absence; but before any fireman is allowed to do 
this, the driver should give him, when he is first 
appointed with him, certain instructions as to the 
quantity and the manner in which the coals should be 
put on and left to burn until starting time. 

Training Firemen. — Some drivers have no instructions 
to give, and therefore it is not a matter to be so very 
much wondered at if the fireman, when " trying his 
hand," should choke a few fires, stop a few trains, and 
put his hands into the driver's pockets a few times, not 
to mention the waste of fuel, before there appears any 
sign of a fireman about him. 

With some drivers, however, the reverse of the above 
is their practice. A first-class man will show a strange 
mate what he requires, how to do it, and when to do it, 
and insist, under all circumstances, upon having every- 
thing done properly and in the most efficient manner. 
If we t-ake notice of such drivers, we shall see that, with 
them, an awkward fireman very soon changes his habits 
and his appearance — he gets the knots dressed ofi" him. 
Has he been taught to come on duty dirty and late, and 
to neglect the foot-plate front ? He is sharply untaught, 
and very properly too. Does he throw the fire-irons 
anywhere after using them ? He is told there is a place 



WATER-LEVEL IN BOILER, ETC. 95 

for everj^thing on that engine. Is lie dirty about his 
work ? He Is shown how to handle the shovel, oil-feeder, 
and everything else without blackening himself to such 
a degree that a boy in the street mistakes him for a 
chimney-sweep. Thanks to such drivers, who deserve 
much praise for keeping their firemen in proper 
training ; for, just as they are trained, so they will 
turn out as enginemen. 

When the fireman arrives, there is, as a rule, but little 
steam, and about three inches of fire on the bars. On 
the foot-plate he should test the water in the boiler by 
opening the waste- water cock, and letting out the water 
aad shutting the cock again ; and hj looking at the 
pressure-gauge he should see what pressure of steam 
there is in the boiler. The first performance is necessary 
to insure the safety of the boiler, and the latter to form 
some idea of the condition of the fire. If the steam is 
low, the fireman should at once, before doing anything 
else, attend to the fire, either by spreading what is 
already on the bars, or, should he think necessary, by 
putting some more coal on, and by opening the damper. 
If not already opened. His next duty is to rake out the 
ash-pan, provided that he can get the engine over a 
pit used for that special purpose outside the shed. This 
is not absolutely necessary, because it can be done as 
the engine is moved out of the shed by the driver ; 
but when the fireman finds that there is every appear- 
ance of the engine being late in getting up steam. In 
consequence of the ash-pan being choked with ashes, 
he should use every means to clear them out as early as 
possible. In well-regulated running-sheds the ashes 
are all raked out before the engine is put away on its 
return from duty. 



96 DUTIES OF FIREMEN. 

Before raking out, if there are no water-cocks oi 
pipes for wetting the ashes connected with the feed- 
pipes by the side of the ash-pan, the fireman should 
throw a few buckets of water into the ash-pan to lay 
the dust, which otherwise would fly all over the motion, 
framing, and wheels, and completely spoil the honest 
work of the cleaner ; and really such want of apprecia- 
tion by the fireman of the work of the cleaner, which 
is oftentimes done in the night while the fireman is 
snoring, is extreme!}?" disheartening to the cleaner. 

Where the working boiler-pressure is 140 lbs. per 
square inch, and the trip about to be run is something 
about 160 miles, with only a stop of three minutes, the 
fireman, before making up his starting fire, should see 
that there is not less than 100 lbs. pressure of steam in 
the boiler ; because, when it is less than this pressure, 
and a thick fire is put on, it often requires some time 
in burning through upwards ; consequently, train-time 
drawing near, the blower is required to be put on and 
the damper to be opened wide ; and in nine cases out of 
ten, although the engine is blowing ofi* " mad " when 
backing into the train, the fire is simply, properly 
speaking, artificially burning on the top. This fact 
many a driver has found out by getting short of steam 
soon after starting. A blown-up fire is the worst of 
fires. 

To see an engine blowing off furiously at the com- 
mencement of its trip, and afterwards to hear of its being 
stuck for want of steam, is not by any means an uncom- 
mon occurrence. But to see an engine back into a train 
with not the slightest sign of any steam about the 
safety-valves, and afterwards to know that the engine 
kept exact time, speaks volumes for its driver, and is a 



MAKING-UP THE FIRE. 97 

matter of sufficient importance for all firemen to aim at 
achieving. 

When the fireman has satisfied himself that there is 
plenty of water and steam in the boiler, with sufficient 
fire in the box to cover the bars a few inches, he should 
obtain some old fire-bricks and break them up to the 
size of a tea -cup, and then sprinkle them with the 
shovel over the grate-bars, particularly at the corners. 
By the adoption of this expedient the bars will be pre- 
vented from burning by exposure to the heat ; it will 
help to keep the fire open, to keep down the cold air 
at the four corners, and to prevent the fire from falling 
through. When the fire-bars are too short, a few 
shovelfuls of broken bricks placed along the front or 
back of the box will greatly assist in remedying the 
deficiency. When old bricks (arch- bricks) cannot be 
found, chalk may be used, which answers just as well ; 
and when neither are at hand, sand will preserve the 
bars from burning. 

Maldng-iq) the Fire. — The fire should be made up 
by the hands when Welsh coal is used, and with the 
damper open, which admits of a free circulation of air 
to spread among the coals whilst they are being put on. 
The best coals upon the tender should be used first ; 
that is lumps, and with ** Welsh '' they cannot be too 
large, provided that they are put on one and a half or 
two hours before train -time. The lumps should be 
placed side by side, all round the box against the walls. 
If the box is large it may probably require a second row 
within the first row ; hut in every instance there should be 
left sufficient simce in the centre for the coals to occupy when 
they are expanded by the heat. 

Of good Welsh, about half the quantity the box con- 

H 



98 DUTIES OF FIREMEN. 

tains when fully charged, with the train, is enough for 
a starting fire. A large lump dropped into each of the 
back corners at last will, when burned up, give to the 
fire a greater depth under the door than what it will 
have under the arch. This is how it should be, 
unless the box is very shallow indeed, and then the 
fire should be straight and thin. In boxes inclined 
towards the front, the fire is always deepest under 
the tube-plate. 

The best Welsh coal swells verv much if it is allowed 
time to burn gently through, and under the influence 
of heat it assumes an appearance which reminds one of 
a cauliflower plant. The quality of Welsh coal may be 
known, even before it is exposed to the fire, by breaking 
it with the hammer. If it is good it will return the 
blow with a blinding cloud of fine dust. Upon some 
railways accordingly it is called " Blynd " coal on 
Account of its dusty nature. If it will blind, it will 
make steam ; if not, its character is uncertain, and 
some of it only fit for malt-house purposes. 

Hard coals should be broken up into lumps about the 
size of a brick, and watered, and put on with the shovel 
all round the box exactly like Welsh, as already ex- 
plained. With an extra shovelful in each back corner, 
hard coal, like the soft (Welsh), can be put on one and a 
half or two hours before train-time, with good dampers ; 
indeed, some first-class drivers always do so, and they 
find that it pays them. Hard -coal fires have been 
drawn, after standing in " bank '' engines for several 
hours, having the appearance and all the hardness of 
coke. In consequence of hard coal making much 
smoke, particularly when the dampers and doors do 
not fit very closely, it is best not to put much of it in 



OIIJNG THE MACHINERY. 99 

the fire until starting time. Still, where it can be 
done, the first-mentioned practice should have the pre- 
ference, because the fire is then known to be good at 
the bottom, hard, and partly coked, well burned through 
upwards — resembling capital to start with. 

A good beginning makes a good ending. 

Oiling the Machinery. — The oiling generally is done 
partly by the driver and partly by the fireman ; the 
former does the outside, and the latter goes below. 
The engine should be fixed so as to get at both of the 
big-ends nicely ; this is attained by placing both big- 
ends below the crank-shaft ; in fact, the most suitable 
position is exactly the same as was recommended for 
making an examination of the engine. 

It is the fireman's duty to be as frugal with the oil 
as possible without incurring any risk of heating. No 
doubt can be left in the mind of any one who under- 
stands oiling and trimming, after looking underneath 
at the motion and the boiler of the engines of some 
drivers, that the waste of oil is enormous. The waste 
should not exist, for it can be safely avoided by care. 

The oiling of big-ends, eccentrics, straps, and outside- 
rods, need not be done with any regard for the distance 
about to be run, since, with plug-trimming, the oil only 
drops when the engine is in motion ; but the syphons 
should never be filled so full as to waste the oil over the 
side, for what is wasted in this way would, in some in- 
stances, serve for the motion. Four drops of oil will take a 
big-end one mile. The oiling of the slide-bars, glands, 
motion, and axle-boxes, should be the last thing to 
be done, and as near train-time as circumstances will 
admit of. A little oil, however, before coming off the 
shed, is necessary to moisten the trimming, and to pre- 



100 DUTIES OF FIREMEN. 

vent anything cutting, but on no consideration sliouH 
they be filled up so long as half an hour or an hour 
before starting. There are many ways and means to 
economize oil, and a driver may, by circumspection, 
soon find out if his trimmings allow the oil to '* fly ;" 
the boiler-bottom will show it, and the machinerv and 
wheels will be coated all over. Trimmings require to 
be well looked after and adjusted, until they are the 
exact " ticket.'' When an engine is fresh out of the 
shops the trimmings are slack; and, as the motion wears, 
they require to be tightened by adding strand after 
strand. It is really astonishing to observe on what a 
small quantity of oil an engine may be made to run 
without heating. 

Some drivers make use of tallow in the big- ends and 
outside-rods, because they have not yet learned how to 
make a proper trimming. Of course such practice is 
confined to ballast -men. Sometimes even the better 
class of drivers use tallow in the tender axle-boxes with 
oil ; but it is frequently the cause of an axle running 
hot when the tallow chokes the worsted. The more a 
driver can do without tallow, the better his engine will 
run ; if he uses it, let him mix it with oil over the fire 
before putting it into the boxes. Even then it requires 
but a small amount of judgment to perceive that the 
trimming which is suitable for pure oil must be unsuit- 
able for a mixture. 

The oiling should be performed systematically, that 
is, if the driver does the whole of the oiling, it should 
be commenced at the trailing-axle of the engine on the 
driver's side, then the outside of the driving-axle, then 
the motion and the leading-axle, followed by the crank 
shaft and inside-bearings. Next, the fireman's side of 



OILING THE MACHINERY. 101 

the engine and tender, concluding by crossing to the 
driver's side of the tender, not forgetting the screw- 
coupling. 

On long trips of, say, 160 miles, with only three 
minutes' stoppage for oiling on the way, the fireman 
should drop oiF on his own side and commence at the 
trailing tender-axle ; and after oiling his side of the 
engine, he should oil the crank-shaft, then the driver's 
side to the trailing tender-axle, and the motion after- 
wards, as this can be done after the engine is started, 
from off the framing. 



CHAPTEH YIII. 

DUTIES OF AN ENGINE-DEIVER WITH A TRAIN. 

Number of Vehicles in the Train. — After the engine 
is attached to the train, the oiling of the slide- 
bars, &c., should be finished ; and, before starting, the 
driver should ask his guard what number of vehicles 
are in the train, so that he may know how to work 
his engine with economy, and also that he may 
know the state of things when descending inclines 
and entering stations on the road. This is very im- 
portant. 

It is well known that some drivers have pulled out 
of a station without their trains, and have not found 
their mistake until they overshot the next station-plat- 
form a tender's length, and actually then whistled for 
the guard to put on his brake. Others have lost eight 
carriages out of twelve, and observed no difference in 
the working of the engine. 

But there are drivers who habitually work their 
engines according to the load ; and such drivers can tell, 
after knowing the number of coaches they have, when a 
guard's brake has been inadvertently left "on." An 
express engineman one day, as soon as his train stopped 
at Brighton, jumped off his engine, and said to the 
guard, " Guard, thy brake's been on, I'll swear." " No 



STARTING. 103 

it has not/' said the guard. " Then thy mate's has," 
replied Ben ; and when the wheels of the rear van 
were examined, they were found to be black-hot, with 
a flat place worn on the tyre. 

Management of the Engine icith a Train. — Starting. — 
In starting, the regulator should be opened gently, espe- 
cially with a full boiler. This is absolutely necessary 
in some cases, where the tender will just carry the 
engine through the trip. Much of the inconvenience 
arising from priming, when getting away, may be pre- 
vented by blowing the water out of the steam-pipes and 
cylinders before joining the train — as the engine is 
moving tender first — so that the " blacks " and waste 
water may fall quite clear of the engine and boiler. 
If the engine has to wait some time for a train, the 
steam-pipes and cylinders may be kept warm and free 
from water of condensation by opening the regulator a 
very little, with the brake screwed on hard. 

Care is necessary, in moving *' oflP," to keep the 
cylinders and valves clear of water. Half a pint of hot 
water will wash the grease off dirty plates and dishes, 
and it will just as effectually wash the faces of the 
cylinders and valves, and when this is fully effected at 
the start it is a great misfortune. In numerous in- 
stances, it simply arises through the sand-valves not 
being opened in good time. Slip or no slip, it is better 
to expend a quantity of sand than to incur the risk of 
slipping, when the rails are inclined to be slippery. 

As the engine comes to feel the load, so the regulator 
may be opened more, until the engineman and lookers- 
on can hear what it is likely to do with the train. A 
few clear sonorous puffs at the start do good ; they 
rouse the fire into action at once — there is no hesita- 



104 WITH A TKAIN. 

tion in the matter. They also clear the tubes of loose 
cinders or soot left in them after being swept out. It 
is cruel, wicked, not to give the noble iron steed a little 
grace at the start, so as to give him an opportunity of 
shaking the cold and stiffness out of his iron limbs; 
and, moreover^ it is a loss of time to comm.ence reining 
in, by extra cutting off the steam, before he is half a 
dozen yards away. ** Loose him, let him go." 

The exact time and distance when to notch an engine 
up depends npon the load, and the time allowed for 
running the train ; but, however much circumstances 
may alter cases, there is one thing that will remain 
unalterable, and that is, after the engine has got 
the train into a pretty good speed, the lever should 
always be pulled up a notch or two at a time, and 
not pulled almost out of gear at once. This point 
is very important, and worth following out in prac- 
tice. 

The steam should not be entirely shut "off" in 
order to pull the lever back when about to work the 
steam expansively ; and in fact, when it is possible, 
the lever should not be touched ; for the practice of 
shutting the regulator first cannot be allowed in first- 
class enginemanship, and for this reason : it is unpro- 
ductive of any good effect, and is, on the contrary, 
liable to do a vast amount of damage, especially to 
engines having a worn motion. Some thousands of 
cases have occurred in which engines have broke down 
just after starting ; and, in a certain district, where 
some drivers habitually shut " off" before pulling the 
lever up, they scarcely ever give up their train without 
its being possible to trace the cause to the practice now 
condemned. 



STEAM-BLOWING. 105 

Nothing looks so bad to " engineers " as to see the 
driver suddenly close the regulator, pull the lever very 
nearly out of gear, and " smack " the steam on again. 
The force with which the steam may strike the piston- 
head under such circumstances is very great indeed ; 
ftnd it is sufficient, with a loose piston or cross-head 
cotter, to do some damage, not to mention the sudden 
snatch among the couplings and draw-bars. 

To an attentive engineman the starting away is full 
of interest ; for, although he may have made a careful 
and thorough inspection of his engine before joining 
his train, still he cannot feel satisfied that all is right 
until the full pressure of the steam is on the piston 
and the engine feels the load. 

Has he had the pistons examined ? — it is at the start 
he listens for improved effects. Have the valves been 
changed, or faced-up, or re-set ? — it is at the start that 
he satisfies himself if they are tight, true, or not true, 
as the case may be. 

By a little attention and watching of the outside- 
crank or crank-pin, it is possible for the driver, while 
he stands upon the foot-plate, and the engine is moving, 
to discover the slightest defect in the piston or the 
valve, and, without leaving the foot-plate, to trace it 
home to either piston. Thus :— 

Steam-blowing. — Suppose a " blow " is heard at each 
turn, and only when the outside-crank is nearly in a 
straight line with the piston-rod, looking from the left- 
hand side of the foot-plate, and with the outside cranks 
on the same centre line, and on the same side of the 
axle as the inside crank ; it would be discovered that a 
piston is " blowing," owing to the sound being inter- 
mittent, for the blowing through of a valve would bo li 



106 



WITH A TRAIN. 



continuous leaking. Further, it would be known tliat 
the defect was not in the left-hand cylinder, there 
being no steam in it, when the cranks are in the 
position above described, and therefore we should have 
to look to the right-hand cylinder, where the full 
pressure of the steam must be on the piston. 

Beats of the Engine. — There are four beats for one 
revolution of the driving-wheel, or the crank-axle. 

In a coupled engine, fitted with the right-hand crank 
leading, as in Fig. 9, in which the right-hand big-end 



(^T-anl^ 




Lefthdnd 
"Crank 



Fig. 9. — Eight-hand Engine. 

is straight up against the bottom of the boiler, when 
the left-hand big-end is straight out against the fire- 
box, observe the motion of the outside crank, as above, 
from the left-hand side. We shall hear the beats in 
the following order : — 

R. H. cylinder, Lack beat, about a, Fig. 10. 



XJ. Xi. 


?j 


»? 


>» 


)J 


'>> 


>> 


R. H. 


» 


front 


J? 


>» 


c, 


»' 


L. H. 




»» 


!» 


»> 


D, 


» 



BEATS OF THE ENGINE. 



107 



By giving attention to tlie outside-crank, an engine- 




a 
a 

a 

e3 

«4-l 
O 



^ 



be 



man can easily detect the growing weakness in either 



108 



WITH A TRAIN. 



of the beats, and at once give an opinion on tlie matter. 
If the rings in the right-hand cylinder be slack, and 
if he know what part of the circle the outside-crank is 
traversing when the steam is full on that piston, by a 
very little practice he will be enabled to detect the 
slightest wear, and to watch daily the gradual dete- 
rioration of the rings in that piston. By the same 
rule, any ring that blows may be watched, and notes 
taken from the ashes in the smoke-box of the necessity 
of having it renewed or tightened. 

Pressure on the SUde-hars. — Most drivers have ob- 
served that, when the engine is running chimney first, 
the bottom slide-bars require scarcely any attention 
with regard to lubrication ; and that, at the same time, 
nearly all the rub is against the top bars, necessitating 
every care to keep them from cutting 

On the other hand, they will have noticed that, 
when the motion of the engine is reversed, and it is 
run tender first, the rub of the slide-block is against 
the bottom bars, and is least against the top bars. 

The pressure of the slide-block is constantly upwards 
in forward motion, and constantly downwards in back- 
ward motion. It is not, as might be supposed, alter- 
nately up and down, according as the crank and the 
connecting-rod change from the top to the bottom 
centre. 

This is to be explained. When the crank is stand- 
ing on the top-centre, near the bottom of the boiler, 
the piston-rod must ^j?^// to move it towards the 
cylinder in forward motion ; and, as the pull is oblique, 
the little-end and slide-block are forced upwards, when 
the top slide-bar acts as a fulcrum to the piston to pull 
the crank over. When the crank, connecting-rod, and 



KEEPING-UP STEAM. 109 

piston-rod are all in a line, the pressure of tlie slide- 
block is then slightly on the bottom bar, and is that 
due simply to the weight of half the connecting-rod, &c. 
When the crank has passed the dead-centre and gone 
below, the piston-rod must push, and, as the resistance 
is below the piston-rod, the slide-block is forced upwards 
against the top bar, which again acts as a fulcrum to 
the piston to push the crank under. 

So that, in forward motion, whether the crank is 
above or below the centre of the crank-axle, the cross- 
head, both in pulling and in pushing, rubs against the 
top bar. 

Going Tender first, — When the crank is standing on 
the top- centre, against the bottom of the boiler, the 
piston-rod must p)ush to move it toward the fire-box 
for back-way motion, and as the push is oblique, the 
cross-head is forced downward, the point of resistance 
being above the horizontal line of the piston-rod. 
When the crank is gone below the back dead-centre, 
the piston-rod must pull; and then again, as the pull is 
in an oblique direction, and the focus of resistance is 
below the centre line of the cylinder, the cross-head is 
pulled down upon the bottom bars by pulling the crank 
up, which opposes with a force equal to the resistance 
of engine and train. 

Keeping-up Steam. — By the time that the engine has 
got the train up to speed, steam should have commenced 
to be just issuing from the safety-valves. When it 
does not do so, the advantage of starting with a boiler 
full of steam is lost ; and the fireman has somewhat 
to learn in making up a starting fire that shall be ready 
for action as the engine is getting over the first mile. 
Short-train drivers, of course, would scarcely feel tho 



110 WITH A TRAIN. 

force of such circumstances, for they can almost run 
from station to station without using the feed until the 
steam is shut off; but matters are very different on 
long runs. If the engines are not instantly up to the 
mark at the start, and if the feeds must be held " off '' 
to allow the fire and the engine a chance of recovery, 
the consequences are that the water in the boiler gets 
lower and less, and the uncertainty of ever getting the 
water up again becomes greater every minute, especially 
with a heavy train and against a strong side wind. 

Management of the Fire. — A skilful fireman seldom 
misses this important element of good management. 
The engine no sooner discharges a few vigorous puffs 
than, with a well-managed fire, there are signs of 
everything being right, the steam is seen blowing off 
at the safety-valves, though very slightly. 

Sometimes Welsh coal, probably from being too much 
wetted, hangs together in the fire-box, and prevents 
the engine from steaming nicely, causing the fire to 
burn hollow, and to draw air. An engine-fire will some- 
times run for miles without any variation of pressure 
in the boiler of J lb. per square inch either way, unless 
the feed happens to be put on. The first thing re- 
quired to be done with such a stupid fire is to get 
a shovelful of small coals and scatter them pell-mell 
over the top of the fire, but chiefly along the sides and 
front of the box ; the effect will be that some of the 
small coals put on in this way will fall into the very 
hole or holes through which the engine is drawing air. 
Tobacco- smokers sometimes do this kind of thing to get 
their pipes to burn ; they slightly move the tobacco with 
their finger on the top, and that knocks a morsel 
of weed into the air-hole, and the pipe afterwards 



MANAGEMENT OF THE FIRE. Ill 

burns charmingly. "When this plan is of no effect — 
and this can be soon ascertained by watching if the 
needle of the pressure-gauge begins to rise — the dart 
should be thrust into the centre of the fire, and the fire 
gently raised so as to open it if close, or to close it 
together when it has burned hollow. Provided that a 
driver can see his way with such a fire, it is, in point 
of economy, best to leave it undisturbed, for sooner or 
later the action of the blast and the vibration of the 
road will bring it round ; but, of course, on fast and 
important trains, action is required to be taken at once, 
and either of the two mentioned remedies will seldom 
fail to move the needle. 

When the fire is right at the start, a few good puffs, 
with the damper slightly open, will set the incan- 
descent coals into a fierce flame, and the steam will be 
seen just at the point of blowing off. This is the 
signal to commence firing. On short trips, such as 
those of fifty miles or less, one fire made up before 
starting is suflScient, in some instances, to carry an 
engine through ; but for a run of 160 miles, with one 
intermediate stop only, ihe first fire is not sufficient, 
and the question is, What is the best thing to be done ? 

The driver of such a train is very particular about 
keeping time, as such running is generally performed by 
*' crack " men, on " crack " trains, in " crack " time, 
and the only possible way to do that is to start with 
the pressure-needle indicating a full boiler of " gas," 
and to keep it at the same point until the Home signal 
is sighted. To do this, a fireman must not only give 
his heart and soul to his w^ork, but he must not depend 
upon ani/ particular mode of firing for success ; for 
whatever is to be wrought with absolute certainty — ■ 



112 



WITH A TRAIN. 



to be repeated again and again, week after week, and 
from one year's end to another — must be done upon 
some principle ; and, if it is not, bis reputation as a 
fireman will be crumbled into dust by the first dif- 
ficulty he meets with. If, however, a fireman works 
upon a principle, he can keep the boiler full of steam 
as well to-morrow as he can to-dav ; as well with No. 1 
as with No. 2 engine ; as well with driver A as with 
driver B. It makes no difference to him whether the 
season be summer or winter, whether it be light or 
dark, or whether twelve or twenty carriages are behind 
him. He works both his mind and his shovel ; and he 
is sufficiently inquisitive to ask : " Why do I fire this 
way ? Is it the best waj^ ? Will my way stand the 
test of a four hours' run ? Can I build upon it as upon 
a rock ? Is it safe, sound, lasting ? " 

These are questions of great importance, and 
their solution can alone give rest and satisfaction to an 
aspirant after the very best possible practice in locomo- 
tive firing. 

In the coke-firing days the fire did not require such 
an amount of attention and skill as is now necessary 
with a coal fire. Smoke is a "nuisance," and it will 
not be consumed by a slip-slop way of firing; besides, 
a coal-fire, to be efficient, is worked on account of its 
adhesive nature. 

Haycock-fire, — The coal fire of haycock shape, emi- 
nently associated with failures through want of steam, 
is made by shovelling the coals into the middle of the 
fire-box — a practice about as far behind the times, 
comparatively speaking, as the use of the flint and the 
tinder-box would be in the year 1877. 

The characteristics of such a fire are — uncertainty 



CONCAVE FIRE. 113 

as regards making steam, and certainty as regards 
destruction to fire-boxes and tubes. It generally draws 
air at the walls of the box, and, in consequence, 
the fire-irons are always in the fire, knocking it about 
and wasting the fuel. As such fires are formed on the 
centre of the grate, they weigh down the fire-bars in 
the middle, and may even cause them to drop off their 
bearers or supports. But there are greater evil conse- 
quences even than these : the cold air being admitted 
into the fire-box up the sides, instead of in the middle, 
comes into direct contact with the heated plates and 
stays, doing them a deal of damage by causing inter- 
mittent expansion and contraction. 

It would be an easy task to pick out certain engines, 
known to be fired on the haycock system, and to show 
that, although the boiler work is superb, they are 
always subject to sudden leakage either in the joints of 
the plates or in the stays, the tubes, or the foundation- 
ring — in a word, that they are continually in for 
repairs of the boiler. ^' 

In no small degree, the value and the life of a locomo- 
tive boiler depend upon the system on which it is fired. 

Concave-fire. — That the fire in a locomotive fire-box 
should maintain steam under all circumstances of load 
and weather, should consume its own smoke, should 
burn up every particle of good matter in the coal, and 
in fine should be worked to the highest point of 
economy, it requires to be made in the beginning, and 
maintained, to a form almost resembling the inside of 
a tea-saucer — shallow and concave — where the thinnest 
part of the fire is in the centre. 

A fire of this form makes steam when other fires do 
not, being built upon a principle that never yet 

1 



114 WITH A TRAIN. 

misled either the driver or the fireman. It has 
obtained a man a good name many a time. 

How to fire ? This is a very important question. 

How to Fire properly. — To fire properly, the fireman 
is required to stand in such a position as to command 
the coals in the tender, and to work the shovel without 
shifting his feet, except when he turns slightly on his 
heels, first toward the coals, and then towards the fire- 
hole. If a fireman, when he is in the act of firing, lifts 
either of his feet off the foot-plate, he will roll about, 
and the firing will be imperfectly done, in consequence 
of the coals being knocked off the shovel by the latter 
catching against the fire-hole ring or the deflection- 
plate. 

To fire properly, the shovel should enter the fire- 
box as little as possible. It should be stopped dead 
at the fire-hole ring ; and the impetus given to the coals 
should be sufficient to discharge them, like shot, right 
into their intended destination, close to the copper. 

It is, however, a common practice to pick up with 
the shovel as much coal as it is possible to heap upon it, 
pushing the shovel into the coal with the knees. There 
is no necessity for doing so. The foot-plate of a loco- 
motive is not a mixen. A few lumps of coal, such as 
will lie nicely oj the body of the shovel, are all that is 
required ; and the shovel should be worked by the 
muscles of the arm. 

The first shovelful of coal should find a billet in the 
left-hand front corner ; the second shovelful in the 
right-hand front corner ; the third shovelful in the 
right-hand back corner; the fourth shovelful in the 
left-hand back corner ; the fifth shovelful under the 
brick arch close to the tube-plate ; the sixth, and last, 



TO FIRE PROPERLY. 115 

shovelful under the door. To land this one properly 
the shovel must enter into the fire-box, and should be 
turned over sharp to prevent the coals falling into the 
centre of the grate or the fire. 

It will at once be seen that this fire is made close 
against the walls of the fire-box, and in actual contact 
with the heating surface, also that the principal mass of 
the coals lies over the bearers which carry the fire-bars. 
The centre of this kind of fire is self- feeding, for by the 
action of the blast and the shaking of the engine the 
lumps in the corners are caused to roll or fall towards the 
centre. On this system the centre is the thinnest part 
of the fire — quite open and free from dirt. The dirt 
falls down by the sides of the copper-plates, and 
assists in preventing the cold air from touching the 
plates. With a fire of this description the air or 
oxygen can only get into the fire-box and into the 
neighbourhood of the tubes through the centre — 
through fire — and, mingling with the flame, it be- 
comes instantly heated to a very high temperature 
before entering the tubes, which are thereby assisted 
in maintaining an even pressure in the boiler. 

Coals of the same description have been delivered to 
two different drivers, having engines of the same class, 
working on the same day, running the trains over the 
same ground, with equal average loads ; and the result 
has been that while one driver could do anything with 
the coals, the other man was ''afraid'' of them. The 
former put his coals against the " walls" of the fire-box, 
and the latter put them in the centre of the grate. 

When to Fire. — Next to the question. How to fire ? 
follows one of equal importance : When to fire ? To 
fire properly, with the greatest efi'ect in saving fuel, it 



116 WITH A TRAIN. 

should be done as soon as the steam begins to lift the 
valves ; when, by opening the fire-door and putting a 
small quantity of fresh coals on, the steam is slightly 
and sufficiently checked to prevent its being wasted by 
blowing ofi". There is an idea abroad that, unless the 
steam blows oflP *'mad," there can be no very great 
demonstration of skilled enginemanship. There cannot 
be a much greater mistake. When steam, water, and 
fuel are being thrown away through the safety-valves, 
it is a positive proof of the existence of either one or both 
of the following evils : either the engine is too small 
for its work, or the engine is too great for its man, and 
the engine or the man would do better on short-train 
work ; the former until it was convenient to place it 
under the steam-hammer, and the latter until he had 
learned how to bottle his noise, or anyhow until, for the 
sake of the engine, he could enable her to obtain a fair 
position on the coal- premium list. 

Intervals of Firing. — The interval between the rounds 
of firing, which should consist of six shovelfuls only^ 
each time the door is opened, is in every case regulated 
by the weight of the train or load, the state of the 
weather, and the time allowed for running the trip, 
together with the quality of the coals. 

Hard coals burn away much more quickly than soft 
or Welsh ; but, whatever there may be to vary the cir- 
cumstances under which each trip is performed, one 
thing remains constant and certain, and that is, if the 
fire is to retain its proper shape throughout the trip, 
the coals must be 2^'^t into the very places already men- 
tioned, and never into the middle ; this will look after 
itself. 

The aim in first-rate locomotive firing is to maintain 



IJAl) FIRING. 



117 



the fire In a state of efficiency; and to do this the 
services of a willing and persevering fireman are 
required, for the shovel may never be out of his hands 
after he has commenced to fire, on " crack " runs, until 
he finds that he has sufficient fire in the box with which 
to finish the trip. 

Bad Firing. — Without doubt, the greatest mistake 
made upon the foot-plate by some firemen is to put 
too much coal on at each firing. The result is, the fire 
is partially choked ; that is, the oxygen is shut out at 
the grate-bars. Clinkers then commence to be formed, 
by the dross in the coals reaching the bars without 
comins: in contact with sufficient oxv«ren to consume 
it ; the temperature of the boiler is i educed ; stays, 
tubes, &c., start leaking by unequal contraction of the 
plates, some being thicker than others : the smoke-box 
door gets hot ; the engine loses time ; and the driver 
loses caste. 

A driver, who had been a source of trouble, both to 
himself and to his engine, arrived one day at H station 
with his blower turned full on, and the boiler contain- 
ing 130 lbs. steam. The fireman, as soon as the train 
stopped, took up, in all, seven large lumps of coal, and, 
placing each lump successively on the fire-hole ring, 
allowed them to drop or roll anywhere in the box. 
Upon these he afterwards discharged fourteen shovel- 
fuls of coals. 

The train was signalled to start, and as the engln<» 
got on her way the pressure of steam gradually fell, 
and as it did so the fireman set to with the dart and 
knocked the fire all to pieces. When there was only 
60 lbs. steam, the driver pat his ear to the door, and in 
a moment exclaimed, '' There, mate ! she is going to 



118 



WITH A TRAIN. 



serve us a trick again ; don't you hear them tube? 
leaking like billyho ? " There were also serious com*- 
plaints against some patches that had given out before, 
but which were not very great trangressors. The 
dampers were wide open, and the blower going for the 
remainder of the trip. 

The cause of the leakage was explained to the driver, 
and the advantage to be gained by firing frequently, a 
little at a time, instead of fourteen or twenty shovelfuls 
at one time. From that time the driver, not above 
being taught, has never been seriously short of steam ; 
and, instead of his driving being a burden to him, he 
rolls from station to station with pleasure. 

The Secret of Good Firing. — The secret of first-rale 
firing is to fire frequently, a little at a time. It requires 
perseverance, but it is the only way to accomplish four 
hours of hard running with anything like success. 
Numerous plans have been resorted to for the perfect 
combustion of smoke, and for making steam well in a 
locomotive engine ; but the best plan is the employ- 
ment of intelligent firemen, who understand and work 
to principles afiecting combustion, and the expansion 
and contraction of metals. 

Firing ivith the Steam on. — Locomotive firing should 
be performed whilst the steam is " on." It is an 
unsightly thing to see an engine, especially a pas- 
senger engine, entering a station with the blower hiss- 
ing loudly, the driver at the brake, and the fireman 
'' puddling " at the fire, or putting on coals — trying, 
in fact, to make smoke. When the firing is done with 
steam on, the foot-plate is kept clean, and the bright 
work on the front is not tarnished by smoke : and, 
further, the sulphur from the coal is not troublesome. 



GOOD FIRING. 119 

as it is carried off to tlie clilmney by the action of the 
blast. When the firing is done with steam on, the 
force of the blast at the grate-bars remains efficient, 
and the coals put on are prevented from choking up 
the bars through which the iron steed draws his breath, 
and whose motto is — 

" Upon the four elements I feed, 
Which life and power supply, 
To run my race of boundless speed ; 
Take one away — I die." 

Take any two enginemen known to work in opposite 
ways. One fires with the regulator open, and the 
other fires with the steam off, and generally about a 
station. The result will be greatlj^ in favour of the 
one who always contrives to have his firing done with 
the steam on ; he makes no smoke about a station, and 
he makes no clinker worth notice. But the other one 
is all smoke and clinker. 

In firing with the steam on, the driver can give his 
attention for a moment to the fireman's actions. Cast- 
ing his eye downwards each time the shovel approaches 
the fire-door, he can see whether the stoker puts the 
coals against the walls of the box. Such a degree of 
supervision on the part of the driver does not in the 
slightest degree interfere with his other duties. 

When the firing is done with steam on, each man 
upon the engine, when the train enters the station, is 
free to attend to his respective duties, the one at 
the brake and the other at the regulator ; and these 
undoubtedl}^ are the proper things to see to. There can 
be no great objection, when circumstances warrant it, to 
the firing being done occasionally as the engine leaves 
a station ; but preference should be given to some spot 



120 



WITH A TRAIN. 



at some distance from a stopping station ; say, two or 
three miles before the point where the regulator is to 
he closed. As soon as fresh fuel is shovelled into the 
box, its gases almost immediately combine with the 
oxygen, and form flame or gas heavily laden with 
carbon, owing to imperfect combustion, which rolls off 
the top of the chimney in black clouds. If sufficient 
time is allowed for the oxygen to deprive the black 
flame of its carbon before the regulator is closed, there 
is very little attention required afterwards to prevent 
smoking in a station. "When firing on long runs, the 
most favourable spots on the line for working the 
shovel should be selected and habitually used for that 
purpose ; but on no consideration should any stoking 
business be in hand when the engine approaches junc- 
tions, signals, or stations. It should be done after 
passing them. The grand aim of first-rate stoking is 
to keep the steam at one pressure ; that is to say, the 
needle of the pressure-gauge should, as nearly as pos- 
sible, point to a full boiler pressure, up hill and down 
dale. To accomplish this — and it is done on the 
crack engines every day — firing must be studied. 
Engines are not alike. Some are robust, others very 
delicate, but the generality of engines require the exer- 
cise of trained skill to jockey them. Some engines 
steam best with a low fire, and others may carry fuel 
up to the fire-hole. Nearly all engines are afiected by 
cross winds. The firing should be done when the 
steam is just on the point of blowing ofi" — a condition 
which generally happens while the engine is on a rising 
gradient, for the fierce blast causes a maximum supply 
of oxygen to pass through the fire and the tubes, which 
generates great heat and much steam. Even on a 



GOOD FIRING. 



121 



partially level line a " crack " fireman chooses certain 
places for firing, so tliat tlie opening of the fire-door 
will not be necessary for checking the production of 
steam when the reversing-lever is pulled up, whilst, 
at the same time, the pressure-gauge is not an ounce 
behind the maximum working pressure. 

Economy by Good Firing. — It is really astonishing 
what can be accomplished by some enginemen and fire- 
men in economizing fuel. A case occurred a short time 
ago that will just illustrate the point. Driver A had 
for a long period been a heavy consumer of coal, 
compared with other drivers working the same trains. 
His engine was equal to theirs in condition, and there 
was no distinction between them in any one point, or 
in the coals, the loads, or in keeping time. But he 
always consumed two or three pounds per mile more 
than other men in his " link/^ Driver B, on the other 
hand, stood at the top of the premium list month after 
month. It was decided by the locomotive superin- 
tendent to changre the firemen of the two drivers who 
were so wide apart in consumption. This was done for 
three months. After working a month the change 
was striking. Both men had felt the electric shock, 
and figured on the coal-premium list both together in 
the centre of eighteen other drivers ; but driver B was 
still first by fourpence. The next month both men 
** went in for it,'' and it was in every sense of the word 
a struggle. Their coal was weighed, and everything 
they required to be done to their engines was done at 
once. Well! the long looked -for coal -premium list 
came out for the second month, and, as was fully anti- 
cipated by those who knew anything of the firemen, 
the formerly heavy consumer beat the man who had so 



122 



WITH A TRAIN. 



long been top coal-man by 8s. 6d. The secret of this 
change rested with driver B's fireman, who studied 
economy with a vengeance from every point of view. 
He did what many others did not care about doing, 
namely, he fired little at a time and often, he studied 
the road, and kept the shovel and the fire-irons out of 
the fire-box. 

It is expedient for all firemen who wish to attain 
perfection to do as driver B's fireman did, who took 
advantage of every possible contingency to work the 
engine fully up to the mark with a shovelful of coal 
less to-day than yesterday. 

When the wind blows hard sideways, advantage is 
required to be taken, for firing, of the " cuttings " and 
places where the line is protected by trees ; for the 
opening of the fire-door in such winds is a matter of 
consideration. Engines, as a rule, make steam very 
indifi'erently in such winds, a result which is attributable 
to the wind, when blowing hard at right angles to the 
line of motion, causing a partial vacuum in the ash-pan. 

To examine the Fire. — To examine the interior of the 
fire-box — to see if the fire is straight — the shovel is 
required to be placed on the fire-hole ring ; and by 
holding the shovel on its side, with the handle in a 
straight line with the corner or place deemed necessary 
to be inspected, a clear view of it will be obtained 
through the air which enters by the shovel and passes 
forward as a flameless current. Should the fire burn 
down more in one corner than another, it should be 
filled up by placing an extra shovelful of coals in it. 

The two back corners should, under all circumstances, 
be kept well up to the door with coals, and in nine 
cases out of ten, if these are properly looked after, any 



THE FEED. 



123 



engine will make steam freely. It is possible to put 
too much coal under tlie brick arch and choke the nre, 
but this can scarcely be said of the back of the bos.. 

The best advice that can be given for avoiding a 
choked fire has already been given ; fire a little at a 
time, and often. 

Working the Damper. — Some engines are fitted with 
a back damper as well as a front damper — an arrange- 
ment intended for such engines as run to and fro with- 
out being turned. But some enginemen, when running 
engines so fitted, with the smoke-box first, close the 
front damper and only open the back damper. This is 
done when the engine steams well, but it has the efiect 
of burning the coals away at the front ; and, as the 
secret of coal-saving consists in mixing as much air as 
possible with the coals in actual contact with the grate, 
it is better to work the front damper when the engine 
runs funnel first, and the back damper when going 
tender first. The damper should be made to work with 
a wheel and screw, so that the driver may adjust the 
position of it according to the load. 

Management of the Feed. — The maintenance of steam 
frequently depends to a considerable extent ujDon the 
manner in which the boiler is fed with water. The 
aim should be, as far as possible, to regulate the supply 
to the demand — just sufficient to keep the water at one 
level in the glass. Thus an even temperature may be 
maintained in the plates of the boiler, the tubes, and the 
fire-box ; and such regularity of temperature has much 
to do with the service of an engine. A locomotive, like 
a man, should have a chance to do well ; but some drivers 
habitually work the feed exactly in the way to spoil an 
engine. So soon as the boiler is full of steam — blowing 



124 WITH A TRAIN. 

off — they turn on tlie pump full, and keep it on until 
the steam is 30 lbs., 40 lbs., and even 50 lbs. below the 
maximum pressure, before turning it off. Under such 
treatment the temperature and the pressure are allowed 
to rise to the utmost degree, only to be knocked down 
again by a barbarous, wicked, and wretched system. 
There are times, of course, when the feed must be with- 
held for a brief interval ; but, for economical working, 
wal-saving, premium-getting on the road, and first-rate 
enginemanship, there is nothing to beat a constant 
moderate supply of water to the boiler. 

It has often been remarked that an engine consumes 
more water when the water-level is an inch off the 
bottom of the gauge-glass, than it does when it is an 
inch off the top of the glass. The remark is not alto- 
gether based on fancy, for when an engine is working 
hard the water may be allowed to sink in the glass to 
the lower level in consequence of a scarcity of steam, 
that is to say, a reduction of pressure. Therefore, as a 
result, the water, relieved from the pressure of the 
steam, has a tendency to prime ; and although the 
priming may not show itself at the top of the chimney, 
yet large quantities of water do, under such circum- 
stances, escape with the steam through the cylinders in 
the form of fine spray, which, with a full boiler and a 
good pressure of steam, would not have been primed 
over at all. 

Some drivers, of course, can recollect that when they 
have had to run with a tender which, with a heavy 
train, would only hold just sufficient water to carry 
them, with the greatest economy, from one water-station 
to another, the only possible way to do it, without 
being driven to straits for water, was to maintain the 



FEED- WATER/ 



125 



boiler full of water, and keep the steam just on the 
point of blowing off. 

Further, probably, some drivers can recollect when 
they could not maintain the full pressure, and were 
compelled to check the water-supply in order to keep 
up the speed ; that they had barely sufficient water to 
keep the boiler safe, having to close the damper, and 
even to damp the fire, before they arrived at the 
water- crane. 

Injectors. — When injectors are used, with such nice 
ninniDg, one of them should be screwed down so that 
it may act moderately, like a pump ; this will save the 
water which is usually lost in turning an injector on 
and off. What is best to be done on a run of 160 
miles, with one stop only, is also, from an economical 
point of view, the best for all kinds of running. 

Priming. — Priming is an indication of at least one of 
three things : it is the result of dirty water, low steam, 
or careless slovenly driving ; and all three causes may 
exist at the same time. 

Comjoosition of Feed -water. — Water is composed of 
two elementary bodies, oxygen and hydrogen, in the 
following proportions approximately : — 





By Weight. 


By Volume 


Oxygen 


• o , . 


. . 1 


Hydrogen . 


. . 1 . . 


. . 2 



Water, when pure, is transparent, colourless, tasteless, 
and inodorous. But it is capable of dissolving saline 
and other earthy matter in passing through rocks, soils, 
&c. In this way, the water supplied at one station may 
be acidulous, chalybeate at another, sulphurous at a 
third, and saline at a fourth — partaking, in fact, in 



126 WITH A TRAIN. 

no small degree, of the nature of the soil which it tra- 
verses. At Brighton, for instance, it is chalky, like the 
soil. 

After a large quantity of water has been evaporated 
from a boiler, be it ever so pure, a certain quantity of 
deposit is accumulated upon the surface of the tubes, 
the bottom of the barrel, and the fire-box. A boiler in 
such a state is rendered rather ticklish to work, even if 
there be no eifort to economize water and coal. Under 
such circumstances, the only advice that can be given 
is to exercise increased care in keeping the boiler and 
the steam at an even temperature, and the water-level 
as high as it is possible to carry it. Instructions for 
washing out a boiler will be given when we get a 
shed- day. 

But when the boiler is clean, and also the water in 
it, and when, nevertheless, the outside of the boiler is 
covered with marks of priming, there is evidence gene- 
rally of carelessness or want of attention to the indica- 
tions of the gauge-glass. It should be borne in mind, 
before a driver is judged respecting the management of 
his engine, that marks of priming may result from a 
leak in the steam-pipe, or they may be the result of the 
condensation of the exhaust steam in striking the chim- 
ney at the top, round which the condensed steam hangs 
in drops, to be blown ofi" by the wind upon the boiler. 

Gauging the Boiler for Water. — It is an excellent 
plan for every driver, who has an engine to himself, to 
take the first opportunity, when the manhole-joint is 
broken, of examining exactly how the boiler is gauged 
for water — whether high or dangerously low. This 
examination may be made, after the boiler has been 
partially emptied, by tilling it up gently until the 



SIGNALS. 127 

water is visible in the glass, and tlien, with a gauge of 
some kind, measuring the depth of water over the 
crown, or highest part, of the fire-box. Information 
obtained in this manner will set aside all uncertainty, 
and will prevent a driver from speculating : he then 
knows exactly the level of the fire-line. 

On the Foot-plate. — While the engine is under steam 
with a train, the driver should stand in his proper 
place upon the foot-plate, so as to be able to command 
the regulator and the reversing-lever in an instant. 
The observance of this regulation is especially requisite 
at night, when it is imperatively necessary that the 
driver's attention should be continuously directed to the 
engine, listening constantly to the sound of the heat, 
to detect any irregularity that may arise from some 
defect in the machinery or from priming, frequently 
casting his eye on the pressure-gauge and on the level 
of the water in the gauge-glass. As the fireman puts 
on the coals, the driver should occasionally see that he 
is placing them next the walls of the fire-box, and not 
in a heap in the middle. "When the rails are slippery, 
great care is required to prevent the engine from 
slipping, by closing the regulator in time. By unceas- 
ing attention to the action of the engine a man will 
soon be enabled to check her in the act of slipping, and 
to prevent her from flying round at the rate of 800 or 
1,000 revolutions per minute. Just before entering a 
tunnel, there is no doubt that the sand- valves should 
be opened, and the sand should be allowed to flow until 
the train emerges from the tunnel ; for, as was said 
before, sand is cheaper than steam. 

Knoicledge of the Signals. — But evidently a great 
part of every driver's time on the foot-plate must be 



128 WITH A TRAIN. 

employed in looking out for signals, and until he is 
thoroughly familiar with them he may approach them 
involuntarily. The great master drivers, who travel 
the road at express speed, manage to secure a few 
seconds in reserve before reaching a busy junction 
station, so as to reduce speed. This, of course, is re- 
quired only at exceptional places, where the view of 
the signals is defective, and where a great traffic is 
going on, or where the road is not exactly straight. 
It must never be taken for granted that, because the 
"distant" signal and all the other signals are ** off," 
the line is clear. This is a very important point. 

Every driver should, as far as possible, not only see 
that each signal is " off," but he should also cast his 
eyes over the road in front of him to see whether it 
should be " off." At night the circumstances are 
different, and a man can only protect his engine buffer- 
plank b}'" proceeding with caution, that is, by keeping 
a good look-out. Most drivers have found that such 
special carefulness has been the means of preventing 
many collisions. Though a second or so be lost over 
it, the engineman has derived the solid satisfaction of 
knowing, what is testified by thousands, that vigilance 
at all points of the line seldom remains long in activity 
without making some discovery which naturally sup- 
plies an interpretation of the real character of the dis- 
coverer, showing up the actor and his acting, the 
thinker and his thoughts, the judge and the judgment, 
and speaking eloquently for faith and hearty good ser- 
vice, which, like bread cast upon the waters, is, in some 
instances, apparently lost. Yet, with humility and 
patience, duty is, sooner or later, sure to reap its true 
reward. 



THE ROAD. 129 

Knowledge of the Road. — Next in importance to a 
knowledge of signals, and how to act upon them, we 
must place the knowledge of the road. It should ever 
be remembered that, in order to run swift trains with 
safety, the driver should not only be acquainted with 
the line itself, but should also possess a thorough know- 
ledge of the gradients. It will not suffice to know that 
the line runs down-hill from the Four -Ashes to the 
Spread -Eagle station, but the steepness of gradient 
must be known, as well as the length of it. Young 
drivers should lose no time in obtaining possession of 
such information. When a driver has combined his 
knowledge of the signals and their positions with his 
knowledge of the road and its varying gradients, he 
may run with confidence. Should he be running down 
an incline of 1 in 100, and should he have to look out 
for a signal nearly at the bottom, he knows exactly 
where to shut off steam ; and therefore, until he reaches 
that spot, he can maintain the speed by keeping on the 
steam without the least fear of overlooking the signal 
should it stand at " danger." 

Some signals are very badly situated, and cannot be 
sighted nicely until the engine is close to them. In 
other instances they can best be seen afar off, across the 
eoimtry ; and as the train approaches them they become 
hid from view by intervening objects. By keeping a 
good look-out, one man will sight a signal from a point 
whence another man never thought of looking for it ; 
and in. this way, while one is running cautiously for 
fear that the signal may be turned on at " danger," 
another having sighted it several miles off is prepared 
to shut off steam or to run past the signal with full 
t'team on, just as the case may be. 

K 



130 WITH A TRAIN. 

Moreover, wLile the sun shines, the signals, junctions, 
landmarks, and gradient-posts are clearly visible, and 
the track is easily followed ; but when the sun has set, 
and all is covered with darkness — mountains, streams, 
bridges, and stations alike — a driver finds he is left 
without anything to guide him except his personal 
acquaintance with the road. 

There is nothing in our calling that excites the 
astonishment of the public more than seeing some fast 
express train rush past them in the midst of darkness 
at fifty miles per hour. The noble iron steed, as it 
approaches them, has the appearance of some monster 
broken loose from Yulcan's forge. Here a spark and 
there a spark, a flash here and a flash there, the fire 
flying about the heels of the monster as though some 
mighty giant was, by a powerful arm, pulling it down 
upon its haunches. Instead of all this, it is in charge 
of two men who are as self-possessed as though they 
were on the box of a family chaise. Experience is 
everything. 

Knowledge of the Traffic. — Knowledge of locomotive 
machinery and of the line in all particulars are acqui- 
sitions worthy of every driver's ambition, but it would 
never do to rest there. First-rate running, to be done 
with ease and safety, is inseparably dependent upon a 
thorough acquaintance with the traffic, and with what 
is going on " up '' and *' down " the line. 

A circumstance that took place a few years ago in 
respect to an important train will somewhat explain 
this point. A goods train, having two engines attached, 
was proceeding south at midnight, and after it had 
passed a fast express train a thought struck the driver 
of the express that, for two engines, it was a very short 



THE TRAFFIC. 131 

goods train. He stepped over to the fireman's side of 
the foot-plate for the purpose of seeing whether there 
were any tail lights on the last vehicle, but, owing to 
a curve in the line, he could not ascertain that point. 
He, however, shut ofi" steam, and gave instructions to 
his mate to have the brake in readiness, " for," said he, 
'' it strikes me very forcibly, mate, all the train is not 
there." "When they had run about two miles, and were 
thinking of getting up the speed again, a red light was 
seen ahead surging violently from right to left. They 
pulled up at once to it, when a goods guard informed 
them, as he held his bull's-eye light into their faces, 
that a waggon- axle had broken in his train, and had 
caused twelve trucks to leave the rails, and that they 
were across the down-road right in the way of the 
express. The guard got up on the step of the engine, 
when they pulled gently down to the scene of the 
accident, where a sight presented itself which told 
them that something else besides being able to drive an 
engine was required to make a man a good railway- 
man. 

Presence of Mind. — Railway service demands heads 
that think and eyes that roll, ready at a moment to 
detect the slightest intimation of anything wrong in 
the working of trains. 

Driver Standiford, in charge of an up midnight mail, 
running to time, expected to pass driver Coven at or 
very near the Harrow Junction — Coven being also in 
charge of a mail going down. But as they did not 
pass each other near the usual spot, driver Standiford 
became very anxious about the whereabouts of Coven, 
and he looked with the greatest anxiety at every signal 
he approached to see whether the latter was signalled. 



132 



WITH A TRAIN. 



Disappointed, lie said to his mate, *' Coven not signalled 
yet ; something is surely wrong ; stand handy to thy 
brake." 

Such a thing as losing time with the down mails was 
very rare ; so that, when they were late, the first idea 
about the matter was that a pitch-in had happened, and 
nine times out of ten this thought was the correct one. 
" Ten minutes late," said Standiford, as he crossed over 
to the fireman's side of the engine to get a better view 
of the line in going round a curve, at the same time 
telling his mate to let the fire alone awhile until they 
knew or saw something of the down mail. During 
those anxious moments Standiford never lifted his hand 
ofi* the regulator-handle. For aught he knew, his life 
and those of others were threatened, and he expected at 
every chain to be suddenly summoned to shut the 
regulator and stop quick. With the assistance of the 
gauge-lamp Standiford once more looked at his watch ; 
the mail was now seventeen minutes overdue. As he 
returned his watch to his pocket he also stepped over 
to his own side of the engine foot-plate, and he had 
scarcely been there fifteen seconds when something was 
struck by the bufier-beam or guard-iron of the engine. 
It was neither timber nor stone, but was something much 
softer. Standiford heard something grating under the 
ash-pan ; he shut off steam, and ordered his mate to 
stop the train. A spot of oil, as he thought, had settled 
on his face ; but on wiping it ofi" with the back of his 
hand he observed it was blood ! Forty thoughts sped 
through his brain. A man killed — fogman, signalman, 
Coven, front guard, or fireman — and on this he urged 
his fireman to put his brake on tighter if possible ; but 
he had no sooner done so when, to his astonishment, he 



PRESE>'CE OF MIND. 133 

heard the mail coming at a tremendous speed ; he in- 
stantly seized the gauge-lamp with his right hand, and 
with his left opened the whistle freely to attract the 
down mail engineman's attention. Coven, as he came 
round the corner, saw the danger light and shut off 
steam, put on the brakes, and pulled up as quickly as 
possible. When he had stopped he jumped down, and 
discovered, a few yards in the front of his engine, in 
the four- foot, two dead steers and ten living ones wan- 
dering about the track. Meanwhile Standiford had 
stopped also ; but after examining his engine, and on 
being satisfied that it was a beast he had run over, he 
put on steam again and pursued his way south. 

Now, how soon Standiford ^ovldi have pulled up at a 
red light, after Coven with the down mail was overdue 
to pass him, we can readily understand ; but for his 
thoughts, expectations, intentions, and plans to be 
suddenly sent to the "right about," and yet to be 
capable of quick action, promptitude, and self-possession, 
we cannot so easily conceive. We must admire the 
coolness of the man. Standiford is what may be termed 
a good railway man as well as a good driver. 

In view of the perils of locomotive driving, and the 
nature of locomotive machinery, it is necessary at all 
times to be ready to act with judgment and decision. 

Whatever a driver knows about an engine he may, 
unexpectedl}^, be called on to bring forward, and put to 
a practical test ; and who can say under what circum- 
stances this will take place ? A crank-axle may break, a 
train may part in the dark, and events similar to those 
above described may form this day a portion of the 
experience of a man who has for years past been gliding 
onward like a pleasure-boat on a piece of fresh water. 



134 WITH A TRAIN. 

Suddenly, witli a fearful summons, he is called upon to 
pull himself together, and. prepare to perform some simple 
act of duty which, when performed at the right time and 
in the right way, may not unfrequently excite admira- 
tion. But, too often, the performance is left to blind 
chance, on the spur of the moment, and in belief in 
one's luck. When the unexpected sharp sound of the 
whistle denoting extreme danger is heard, or when the 
crash comes, the mind is thrown into a state of con- 
fusion, vacillation, or hopeless distraction, and actions 
are abrupt and changeable, the driver not having 
already anticipated the occurrence of such circum- 
stances, stored the memory with facts and incidents 
bearing upon every possible mishap that can over- 
take an engine-driver, and through these acting with 
judgment and exercising sovereignty over the ma- 
chinery. 

Making Notes. — It is possible, at all times, ander 
every condition of employment, whether of cleaner, 
fireman, or driver, to make notes and to lay in a store 
of valuable information, gathered from the circum- 
stances of explosions, collisions, hair-breadth escapes, 
and temporary failures, sufficient to qualify even the 
youngest driver to grapple with railway difficulties. 

It is related of one of the great generals of antiquity, 
that whenever in his walks he met with a place which 
appeared to his mind to possess all the points that make 
a place either difficult to storm or to defend, he would 
ask his friends how, in case of war, a place like that 
^as to be dealt with. He would draw with his stick 
a plan upon the ground, showing the positions in which 
he would place his soldiers, where to deposit the baggage 
and erect the tents ; and, if he had to make a retreat^ 



BREAKING DOWN. 135 

he would explain the best possible way in his judgment 
to do so neatly, and with the least possible loss to his 
army. Consequently, nothing ever happened to him, 
as it is recorded, but what he had already planned in 
his mind years before. The ancient general was a fine 
instance of a mind that loves its profession ; and he 
afforded a bright example of what contributes to great- 
ness of character — '' nothing ever happened but what 
he had already planned." It is this kind of forethought 
which we require upon the foot-plate — a disposition to 
look in the face every possible difficulty that can befall 
a railway driver " years before." 

What to do when an Engine breaks down. — Every 
driver should ask himself such questions as he knows 
others have had to answer, in a practical fashion, rather 
more promptly than pleasantly. This night, for ex- 
ample, your crank- shaft shall break, and who can say 
that it shall not ? Therefore be prepared with material 
to pack it up. But the most needful thing is to know 
how to do it, and the quickest and safest way of doing 
it. It is the young driver's privilege, whenever an 
opportunity offers of seeing an engine a cripple, packed 
up, of going underneath and seeing how the packing is 
fixed underneath the axle-boxes in the case of a broken 
crank-shaft, so that the flanges of the wheels are raised 
several inches above the rails. In the running-shed, in 
a word, a great variety of breakdowns daily invite in- 
spection — broken crank-shafts, broken eccentric-rods, 
eccentric-straps and sheaves, broken motion, and broker 
springs. 

It is well known that, though an engine may have 
one thing broken, it is not always of sufficient im- 
portance to disable the engine from working its traia 



136 Vv^lTH A TRAIN. 

home after tlie mishap is discovered. This is a very 
important consideration. Some drivers scarcely know 
when they are beaten — a fact which opens up a wide 
discussion. Everybody upon the railways has heard of 
** Hell-fire Jack," and his daring flight over the Dee 
Bridge at Chester, after one side had fallen into the 
river below. Thousands of deeds quite as daring as this 
are successfully accomplished every year, and at this 
moment there are " Hell- fire Jacks'^ upon every rail- 
way. 

The most important question is, Having broken down, 
what is the first thing to be done ? On the right 
solution of this question railway heroism not unfre- 
quently depends. It is, therefore, advisable to go now 
and again to the side of an engine, and, looking at the 
machinery, ask ourselves questions. Suppose that that 
right-hand back- gear eccentric- rod breaks, what then ? 
Could I get along in forward gear, after having dis- 
mounted the rod and the strap ? The answer is. Yes. 
And it should be prompt, as all such answers should be, 
with such an amount of readiness as really makes of 
breakdowns of this kind a matter of a few minutes. 

Supposing it is a fore-gear eccentric-rod that breaks; 
then, of course, one side of the engine would require to 
be disconnected altogether, — piston, &c. ; but, if such 
an accident occurred near a turn-table, on which the 
disabled engine could be placed by another engine, and 
turned, then the eccentric-rod and strap only need come 
down. 

Supposing that a right or left hand spindle was to be 
doubled up, so as to prevent the valve from being so 
adjusted as to close, say, the front port. First, the valve- 
spindle should be uncoupled from the valve connecting- 



BREAK-DOWN. i37 

rod, and the latter taken down or tied up. To take it 
down, the pin which goes through the link must be 
withdrawn ; secondly, the big-end on the side nearest 
the broken valve- spindle is to be uncoupled ; then the 
little- end ; thirdly, draw the piston to the back end 
of the cylinder, next the slide-bars, and insert a piece 
of wood between the cross-head and the cylinder-cover 
or the stuffing-box, taking care to make the wood safe 
with tar-band or spun-yarn run round the slide-bar. 
By this operation the piston-head is brought over the 
back steam-port, so that the steam, although it may be 
admitted into the cylinder through the front port, 
cannot move the piston ; for after the steam has filled 
the cylinder it simply remains full, and becomes, in 
fact, a steam- chest for the opposite cylinder. - 

Supposing that a connecting-rod broke ; after un- 
coupling it from the crank-shaft and the cross-head, 
the piston should be drawn to the back end of the 
cylinder and secured exactly as already described in 
the previous case. Provided that the piston-head is 
quite close against the cylinder-cover, the val^e need 
not for a sJioH distance be disconnected, because the 
steam cannot enter the back of the cylinder, since the 
piston-head is right over the port, and the steam which 
enters at the front end can have no efiect whatever on 
the piston, and leaves the cylinder when the exhaust is 
open to the chimney exactly as though the piston was 
working. 

When the valve is disconnected from the '* link " by 
which it is worked, it requires to be placed centrally 
over the steam-ports, so as to prevent any steam from 
entering the cylinder, either at the front or the back. 
This can be done by observing, on the spindle, the limit.s 



138 WITH A TRAIN. 

of the travel of the valve, and setting the spindle to the 
middle point ; or, the measurement can sometimes be 
better made off the valve connecting-rod when it works 
in a guide fastened to the slide-bars or motion-plate ; 
or, after opening the cylinder-taps, when there are 
one or more to each cylinder, and opening the regu- 
lator a little so that the steam blows through, and then 
the valve may be gently moved towards the cock from 
which steam issues, until the steam ceases to blow, 
or, in other words, until the valve closes the port. 

If a reversing-lever breaks, the engine should be 
worked by the regulator until another engine can be 
obtained. 

If a regulator should become uncoupled, or a steam- 
pipe should break, so that the steam to the cylinder 
cannot be controlled by the regulator, the engine should 
be w^orked by the reversing-lever, putting it in the centre 
knotch, out of gear, when about to stop. 

If an outside coupling-rod breaks, the coupling- rod 
on the opposite side must also be taken off before 
the engine is moved again. 

If a brake-screw strips the nut, the fact is to be com- 
municated to the guards, who will '' brake " the train 
up to the station themselves. 

Tools should be at Hand. — It is highly necessary that 
the engine-driver should ask himself — What tools have 
I upon the engine ? What could I do with them ? 
Uncouple ? Could I lay hands upon any one particu- 
lar thing, such as a pin-punch or gauge-glass, in the 
dark, or in the midst of a cloud of escaping steam. If 
my engine left the rails, in what condition is the screw- 
jack ? Will it work properly ? Have I a ratchet or 
bar to work it ? Such self-interrogation may be 



END OF THE JOURNEY. 139 

extended to every object : to the signals, for instance, 
the sights, the road, and the casualties which daily 
befall engine, train, engineman, or fireman. 

The press — newspapers — supply material for thou- 
sands of questions which are suggested by reading the 
reports. For this object the papers should be read 
every day. 

It is impossible to say under what circumstances a 
driver may have to decide at a moment's notice or to 
act with great firmness. But one thing is certain, he 
would be an extraordinary railway man who would 
never make a slip ; who would not meet with any mis- 
fortune through the neglect of others ; who never has a 
broken crank-shaft, a bent valve-spindle, an outside- 
rod broken, or bent, broken connecting-rods or pistons, 
or choked fires ; who retains five fingers on each hand 
and five toes in each boot, with his ribs intact. Such an 
one is very unfortunate. Hallway enginemen glory in re- 
lating their hair- breadth escapes, and, ever and anon, 
lay special emphasis on the first personal pronoun when 
narrating the circumstances surrounding a good pitch- 
in between two goods-trains. The influence of such 
honest pride no one can sum up. On the iron track, 
in charge of the iron steed, George's troubles will come. 
The speed and the power are great, and danger lies 
even in the worm that burrows into the sleeper ; but 
the more extensive our acquaintance is with the unfor- 
tunate accidents in which our comrades have been 
killed, maimed for life, or bruised, the more extensive 
will be our power to steer clear, if possible, of every ill. 

Managing the Fire toicards the End of the Journey. — 
The principal point in the management of the engine 
with a train which remains to be noticed, is the finish. 



uo 



WITH A TRAIN. 



With respect to economization of coal, it is, at this 
part of the trip, where one engine-driver may be 
distinguished from another ; for difference of manage- 
ment can decide the fate of several hundredweights of 
coal. 

From the start to that point of the trip where it is 
considered that there is sufficient fuel in the fire-box 
with which to finish the trip, the fire has been kept 
well up to the door by frequent firing ; when, by expe- 
rience and judgment, it is decided that there is sufficient 
in the box to run the remainder of the trip. A gentle- 
man obtained an engine-pass : he was very anxious to 
see some locomotive firing; but he happened to join the 
engine when it was only 58 miles from where it would 
have to be detached from the train. As the train pro- 
ceeded on its passage, our friend, not seeing any firing 
going on, expressed his astonishment. Mile after mile 
was left behind and still no firing nor application of 
fire-irons was needed. As the fire burned down it 
naturally became fiercer, and the fireman was solely 
occupied in attending to the pump, and getting as much 
water into the boiler as it would carrj?-, checking the 
steam, and enabling the engine to run for the last few 
miles without requiring any farther supply of feed 
water. 

The pressure-gauge was watched very narrowly, and 
when it was inclined to fall off the pump was shut-off; 
if the needle attempted to rise again the feed was 
introduced to check it. After having run some 45 
miles, it became evident that the pressure was inclined 
to fall, and the fireman gently, with a fire- iron, levelled 
the fire, and raised the damper one more knotch. To this 
the engine replied, and the needle again began to look up . 



END OF THE JOURNEY, 



141 



surprisingly, more water was introduced, and the boiler 
was filled up. The fire having become very low, the 
pump was shut off, and the water already in the boiler, 
being in excess of the ordinary quantity, supplied 
steam for some miles and until the regulator was 
shut, when the pump was put on again with one inch of 
water in the glass, to run in some more water, the pres- 
sure of steam still admitting of an additional supply of 
water ; w^hich is not always the case at the finish. 
When the train arrived at the platform, the visitor 
particularly wished to see inside the box, where there 
was but a mere handful of fire, and, having looked about 
it, he said he was greatly disappointed, and " should 
certainly go on some engine where there was less 
pumping and more firing." 

It is not possible to make a fire last, like the one just 
described, to the end of every trip ; but, when the 
attempt succeeds, a very large saving of coal is effected, 
and the average consumption is considerably modified — 
sufficiently so, if habitually practised, to make a de- 
cided impression upon any coal-list. One or two hun- 
dredweights of coals are scarcely observed in a large 
box, but two hundredweights saved at the conclusion 
of each day's trip is equal to about two tons per month. 
'Now, it is not an unfrequent occurrence to find engines 
in charge of drivers who are very good in all other 
respects, who think nothing of a fine finish, and who 
take no pains to compete with others for economizing 
of fuel. They keep excellent time, and all that kind of 
thing, but they dislike to be troubled with the necessary 
effort of working the fire, water, and steam to the utmost 
limit of economy at the finish. Generally such men, 
however, look well to the steam when on the road, and 



142 WITH A TRAIN. 

they work their engine with, almost incredible economy 
of water. 

Upon a particular railway, certain express trains had 
a run of 80 miles between two stopping points, and it 
was only by first-rate enginemanship that the train 
could be run without making an additional stop for 
water. Some drivers could do it — do it every time ; 
others failed to do it — failed at heart when they were 
not actually out of water. These men regarded it as a 
risk, having no doubt done it once, and, having found 
it close work, they never attempted it again. Those 
who did it, calculated, measured, and economized the 
water; to them there was no risk, for they knew 
exactly how far 20 gallons of water would take them. 
But then there were other drivers whose tenders could 
not carry sufficient water to take them through. 

Driver A, an old experienced engineman who can 
remember, when 90 lbs. was the maximum pressure of 
boilers, that the engines then ran quite as fast as they 
do now. Although his present maximum pressure is 
140 lbs., yet 100 lbs. is about what the finger on the 
pressure-gauge on his engine points to, taken on the 
average. This man works with the regulator full open, 
and he maintains the speed, against the resistance of 
the atmosphere and the load, by means of the reversing- 
lever, which is generally in the third notch from the 
centre. There is an injector and a pump on his engine. 
He makes use of the former occasionally, but he works 
the pump as a rule. This man cannot get over that 
bit of 80 miles run without making an extra stop for 
water. 

Driver B is also a man of some experience. He likes 
to see 140 lbs. pressure on the gauge, but is not dis- 



END OF THE JOURNEY, 



143 



posed to rouse his fireman over a paltry difference of 
20 lbs. This man works the regulator to maintain the 
speed, with the reversing-lever in 'No. 2 notch. He 
has an injector and a pump, and he works the latter as 
the boiler requires it. This man also cannot get across 
the 80 miles without stopping for water. 

Driver C goes in for 140 lbs. from the start to the 
finish, not a pound less ; works with the regulator full 
open, and with the reversing-lever in No. 1 notch (next 
to the centre of the sector), expanding the steam until it 
can scarcely rise over the chimney top, when it swoops 
down on the boiler, and in the face of the driver. No 
steam is allowed to blow off, and having, like A and B, 
an injector and a pump, he works the injector, screwing 
it down in the barrel until it supplies the boiler 
with exactly the same amount of water that it parts 
with as steam. Thus no water is wasted by turning it on 
and off, and the waste of water at the pump- gland is 
avoided by not using the pump. This man can run the 
80 miles, and even then he has water in the well of his 
tender — a reserve which is no doubt due, in a great 
measure, to his using steam of a very high pressure, 
and expanding it to the smallest convenient pressure, 
just sufficient to keep a moderate blast on the fire. It 
is, in this case, absolutely necessary to fire often, with 
about six shovelfuls of coal at one firinsr. 

We return to the finishing advantages to be gained 
by a trip with a fire that has gradually burned down to 
the bars. Suppose that, at 50 miles from home, the fire 
has received the finishing touch. By the time the 
engine has traversed 20 miles of this length nearly 
every appearance of smoke, or carbon, will have dis- 
appeared, the gaseous elements of the fuel having beeu 



144 



WITH A TRAIN. 



consumed by oxygen, or atmospheric air. Tlie fire 
commences about the same time to make steam rapidly, 
and tbe rapid production will continue even ■ until the 
fire may be only a few inches thick, making more 
steam than when the box was full of coal. The ex- 
planation is, that after all the smoke in the coals has 
been consumed, carbon is no longer deposited in the 
tubes, whilst the carbon particles which have already 
been deposited as a coating of soot on the tubes and the 
tube- plate, assisted by vapour given off from the fuel, 
are violently attacked by the oxygen and literally con- 
sumed. The fiercer the fire, the farther along the tube 
is the cleaning-out action extended. 

The increase of steam is therefore due to the absence 
of smoke ; to increased cubical capacity in the fire-box 
for oxygen ; to the increased transmission of heat due 
to the clearing out of the soot. If a kettle coated with 
soot is placed by the side of a smokeless fire, the heat 
will fetch off the soot in scales. 

The author remembers having an engine, in place of 
the regular engine, that refused to steam nicely, and 
was only made to keep time by working a thin fire 
by stratagem. The tubes were, at the termination of the 
trip, put through a scorching process similar to that 
described above, and the effect was incredible ; for 
the engine steamed wonderfully well on the return- 
trip, which, very much unlike the up-trip, was per- 
formed with pleasure. 

A clean fire, in the sense of being free from smoke, 
when worked at the end of the trip, is a most effectual 
cleaner of tubes and destroyer of clinker. But if there be 
not quite sufficient fire in the box to run the engine and 
train home, it is better to add a little more coal to it be- 



LUBRICATION OF CYLINDERS ANP VALVES. 145 

fore the fire gets too low ; and in doing so care should bo 
taken to see if there are hollow places anywhere — about 
the corners, for instance — that want filling up, so that 
Che fire may burn down quite evenly; and, provided 
that the fire is level, and that there are several inches of 
fuel on the bars, and more fuel is required, it is advis- 
able to use the chisel dart, routing the clinker off the 
bars before putting any more coals on. This will be 
found necessary to secure a good draft and rapid com- 
bustion. For this purpose the coal should be small ; 
and it is a good opportunity to work off small coal. The 
brick arch should, when possible, be cleared by the 
rake when the trip is being finished, so that the fine 
coal lodging on it and raked off on to the grate 
may contribute a little towards getting the engine 
home. This should be done when there is a good hot 
fire. 

In inclined fire-boxes the fire requires to be raked 
back, so that the bars near the door may be covered. 
In running in, the pump and the blower are generally 
employed — the former to fill the boiler for the next 
day^s trip, and the latter to get as much steam as 
is possible out of the dying embers, if only to blow it 
back into the tender to warm the water for the next 
day. 

Use of the Blower. — In all cases, before shutting 
"off" steam, the blower should be put on, and the 
fire-door opened a little, if there be smoke in the fire- 
box, or if the pressure in the boiler is at its maximum, 
so that the flame and sulphurous smoke may be dis- 
charged up the chimney instead of darting out by the 
doorway as soon as the regulator is closed. 

Lubrication of the Cylinders and Valves. — The cylinders 

L 



146 



WITH A TRAIN. 



and the valves should be properly lubricated, as often 
as there is an opportunity of doing so, on long trips — 
when checked by signals, or when reducing speed for a 
junction ; and they should always be lubricated just on 
running in from a trip, so that the engine may be able 
to move without a groan when leaving the shed for the 
next journey. 

A])proacMng a Tennmus. — In approaching a terminal 
station, the train should be well under control, so that 
the engine may be able to stop, bj/ signal, at any part 
of the platform. If a driver is not thoroughly ac- 
quainted with a place, it is ten thousand times better to 
bave to put on steam again to get the train into the 
station than to go into the buffers with the engine 
reversed, whilst the fireman perspires in his efforts to 
twist off the handle of the brake, after the wheels of 
the tender have all been locked. 

When on the station, whilst the engine is waiting to 
pull out the carriages, the driver should look round his 
engine, and ascertain if all the axles are running cool. 
Sometimes when the engine is long detained in the 
station, all the axles, if hot before, may have become 
cool when the engine arrives over the shed pit ; and 
no defect by hot axles can be discovered until after the 
engine gets some distance on the road the next day, 
when an axle is found hot that probably might have 
been previously restored to good order had the drivei 
examined his engine when he arrived in the station or 
the previous trip. 

Where there are pits the engine can also be ex 
amined underneath with the same object — to detect 
anything hot before it has cooled down. And here, it 
may be remarked, there is a great want of engine-pit8 



APPROACHING A TERMINUIi. 147 

at most of the great terminal stations. They would, il^ 
built there, not only confer a great boon on the engine» 
men, but would save the companies the cost of many a 
vexatious failure ; not to mention the damages which 
generally follow upon the failure of an engine in the 
form of compensation for loss of time, cab fares, &c. 



ISf 



CHAPTER IX. 

CAUSES OF FAILURES. 

To learn what have been the causes of failures in loco- 
motive engines is a most instructive practice; and 
whoever reads the fine-sheets and the newspapers 
carefully cannot but learn how many, even the most of 
them, are brought about. It may be advisable now to 
note koiv and where, in their machinery, some engines 
have failed. 

In consequence of not properly examining his engine, 
the driver lost the nuts off the studs of the piston- gland, 
by which the gland was allowed to work out of the 
stuffing-box. When it thus became free, the gland 
accompanied the piston-rod outwards, and on returning 
homewards it failed to enter the stuffing-box. The 
consequence was that it received a tremendous blow 
from the cross-head on the return stroke ; and, by 
the concussion, the piston-rod was snapped asunder. 
While the driver was uncoupling he thought of the 
water in the boiler, and jumped up on to the foot-plate 
just in time to draw his fire and save the boiler. This 
accident caused a delay of one hour. 

By the driver's negligence, the fire-bars of his 
engine melted, or ran together, the ashes not having 
been raked clear out of the ash-pan. When the ashes 



CAUSES OF FAILURES. 



149 



are piled up to the bars, these are placed, practically, 
between two fires. It is a very common thing to 
neglect clearing the corners of the ash-pans, which is 
not only a disadvantage to an engine for steaming, 
but the accumulation being wet, from various causes, it 
corrodes the ash-pan and makes holes in it, so that 
when the engine is standing full of steam, the steam 
blows off, and it is impossible to keep it quiet. This 
entails extra consumption of fuel and waste of steam ; 
and, further, when the engine is running with the 
damper open, the air which enters at the opening 
rushes out through the holes, instead of rushing into 
the fire. 

In consequence of the driver not examining his engine 
properly before joining the train, he gave it up a few 
hundred yards from where he hooked on to it, the 
cross-head cotter being loose. 

In consequence of the driver not seeing that the 
tender was full of water before starting, he had to make 
an extra stop with a first-class train, thereby losing 
caste as an express man. 

In consequence of the driver not examining the set- 
pin in the little-end cotter, the latter worked out, and 
delayed an important express train forty minutes. 

In consequence of the fireman not ascertaining what 
pressure of steam there was in the boiler before making 
up the fire, his engine could not take its train. 

In consequence of the fireman being left to do all 
'the oiling, the little-end (of steel) seized, causing the 
engine to fail; the fireman forgot to oil it. 

In consequence of the sand-pipes not being properly 
tested before the engine joined the train, they would 
not work when required, causing the engine to lose 



150 CAUSES OF FAILURES. 

forty-five minutes, where, being on an easy gradient, 
it should not have lost a second. 

In consequence of the driver not making sure that 
there was a split- cotter in the draw-bar pin, the pin 
worked out, and the engine was separated from the 
tender and train. 

The driver did not inspect his engine before leaving 
the running-shed, and he lost the pin that connected 
the eccentric-rod to the *' link," thereby giving up his 
train and causing delay. 

The split-pins in the motion should be carefully 
examined with the fingers. It is usual for some drivers 
to give them a gentle tap with a hammer ; but the tap 
often fails to detect if the pin is broken in the eye of 
the connection. 

By trusting to chance or luck, a driver was obliged 
to give up his train, through an eccentric-bolt working 
out. The bolt and nut were found, but not the safety- 
cotter, which had no doubt been lost some time pre- 
viously. The bolts, nuts, and cotters about the eccentrics 
require daily inspection, not only to prevent a failure, 
but also to assist in keeping the motion compact and 
square. When an unusual amount of slackness is 
allowed between the eccentric-strap and the sheave, the 
valve is permitted to slugger, and in consequence the 
timing of the valve is afiected, with the distribution of 
the steam and the " beat." In some instances it causes 
the bolts to break. When the bolts have worn slack 
the fitter should let them up early. 

By not looking round his engine properly, the driver 
started with the smoke-box door insufficiently screwed 
up. It was not air-tight, and he lost half an hour with 
an express. The washing-out men had taken out the 



CAUSES OF FAILURES. 



151 



cross-bar to get access to the smoke-box, and had re- 
phiced it with the wrong side outwards. They then, 
without taking any notice, screwed the handles on the 
smoke-box door tight up against the coUar on the 
spindle. This kind of mistake has happened several 
times. 

In consequence of the driver not inspecting the trim- 
ming in a big-end, after a fitter had put in fresh metal, 
he was obliged to give up his train. In this case the 
trimming was too tight. It is very important that 
every driver, who knows what quantity of oil his big- 
ends take, should put in the trimming himself. Some 
engines require more oil than others, although made 
from the same drawings, owing to their being more 
out of line than others — not built square. 

In consequence of the driver not looking after his 
engine, he lost the syphon- top off the eccentric-strap, 
by which the oil was allowed to escape, when the strap 
seized the sheave, and got broken, delaying the train. 
The same kind of accident has occurred to big-ends, 
causing the breaking of the connecting-rod and sending 
a piece of it into the boiler. 

In consequence of the driver's negligence in not see- 
ing that the pump-ram of his engine was all right, it 
worked off the gudgeon, damaging the engine and 
delaying his train. The set-pin head was hid in grease 
and dirt, showing that it had been neglected daily both 
by the driver and the cleaner. 

In consequence of the driver not seeing that the 
valve spindle-gland was screwed up " fair," it heated 
the spindle, and consequently weakened it, so that it 
bent. Care is required both with piston-rods and 
valve-rods, so that they may stand in the centre of 



152 CAUSES OF FAILURES. 

their respective glands ; nothing is so irritating to 
them as a gland which interferes with their operations, 
either by the gland being out of centre or by its work- 
ing loose on the studs. In packing a gland, it is a 
great mistake to suppose, as is often done, that the 
quantity of flax put in represents the efficiency of the 
job. It is often the case that the flax has been packed 
so tight and so hard as to be incapable of receiving 
any moisture from the oil or tallow in the gland ; con- 
sequently the flax is charred and becomes hard in a 
very short time. The best way to make a gland stand 
well is, first, to clean out the stuffing-box and tallow it 
a little ; then to put in some moderately tallowed flax, 
of the same thickness throughout, not too tight, with 
the joint at the top. After having packed the gland 
once, take particular note of the exact length of it 
required to fill the stuffing-box, so that the two ends, 
if the body was removed, would make a butt joint. 
The glands should not be screwed up tight, but should 
be well secured with lock-nuts. If there is a recess in 
the gland for oil or tallow it should be carefully 
trimmed, not too tightly, and it should be liberally, 
but not wastefuUy, supplied with lubrication. The 
duration of the packing depends principally upon the 
attention given to the swabs, or oil- cups, for feeding 
the flax in the stuffing-box. If they are neglected the 
flax will soon burn and perish. With proper attention, 
a freshly packed gland will last for weeks by adding a 
little flax now and then, and by keeping it very moist 
with oil or tallow. 

In consequence of the driver fitting an air-tight cork 
in the syphon-top of the big-end, the lining metal 
melted out. When corks are used they should be 



CAUSES OF FAILURES. 153 

pierced through the centre, and a couple or more 
strands of worsted pulled through the hole ; this will 
permit the air to enter the cup, and prevent the oil 
from flying out. 

In consequence of the driver not examining his 
engine, he failed, owing to a fitter having forgotten to 
replace a pump-ram which he had taken down. 

In consequence of the driver's neglect, the cross- 
head cotter worked out, and left the piston-rod to drive 
out the cylinder- end. 

Superior locomotive drivers, upon all railways, follow 
no false illusions respecting luck ; they habitually exa- 
mine their engines before joining a train. 

It is a very uncomfortable feeling to be working an 
engine which one fears may give out every minute, and 
unless it is properly examined how can a driver know 
but what, before he has finished his day's work, the 
connecting-rod may drive right through the fire-box, 
owing to a broken cotter or gib, or by a set-pin slack- 
ing back. Such things have taken place, and simply 
await like conditions to occur again. However, when 
the engine is properly examined, the driver derives from 
the practice a wonderful amount of confidence in his 
charge ; and without this no man can be a great 
driver. 

It is a good rule to examine the engine ofi* the pit. 
As the engine leaves the shed both pumps should be 
turned on and well tested, and the dry- sand boxes 
opened so as to ascertain that they are workable. 
Should the engine have been under slight repairs, 
these particular jobs should be thoroughly tested or 
examined before the engine leaves the running-shed 
yard. Fitters, like the rest of mankind, are liable to 



154 CAUSES OF FAILURES. 

make mistakes ; consequently, all their work freshly 
done should never be accepted as perfect until it has 
undergone a proper test. Callipers have been left in 
the feed-pipes ; pump-rams left down ; rings left out 
of the piston ; files left in the valve- chest ; cjdinder- 
cover joints and valve-chest joints not screwed up 
tight ; big-ends fitted up too tight ; water let out of 
the tender, and no intimation of the incident given to 
the driver ; feed-pipes uncoupled. One individual, 
who had to do some work in a smoke-box after the fire 
was lighted, put a large sheet of thin iron between the 
blast-pipe and the tubes to keep the smoke off, and 
when he had done his work left it there, and fastened 
up the door. The consequence was that the driver, 
after having done everything he could think of to get 
on the road, put into a siding with an important ex- 
press, when he found out what was the matter. Such 
a case would lead one to consider whether it is not 
necessary regularly to examine the smoke-box as well 
as everything else. Many things have been found 
wrong whilst the engine has been leaving the shed 
which were not discovered over the pit — things that 
would have amounted to a vexatious little big failure. 
That is, the causes would have been small, but the 
efiects on an express sufficient to have made London 
Bridge echo again. It is by far the best way to find 
out in the shed that we have only part of an engine, 
than to join the train and find it out there. 

In conclusion, the science of locomotive driving is 
based upon close observation, and by just so much as 
there is of this faculty in a young driver will he suc- 
ceed. 

By closely watching what is going on in the engine 



CAUSES OF FAILURES. 155 

upon a railway, it is possible, with patience, to become 
able to detect little irregularities taking place in the 
machinery of the engine, in the traffic, and in the 
signals, the discovery of which, made in good time, 
enables the driver to avert many failures and collisions. 

The eye of a skilled physician no sooner meets that 
of his patient than he at once diagnoses the complaint, 
and prescribes the remedy ; and it caniiot be doubted 
that the same skill and precision of judgment are neces- 
sary, and may be acquired, on the part of an engine- 
driver in respect to an engine. 

The iron horse, like its master, is liable to serious 
indisposition, subject to strains and ruptures, and is 
sometimes nearly choked. Now and again, therefore, 
it is not very lively, and consequently requires extra 
supervision. It is undeniable that break-downs and 
failures of every possible description, like everything 
else, have their cause or their origin within reach of 
investigation. 

Every failure of an engine is one of three things : it 
is either a deviation from what the builder intended, a 
deviation from perfect enginemanship, or a deviation 
from sound genuine locomotive properties. It is clear 
we cannot tell what the deviation, the something wrong, 
is, unless we know what the thing deviated from, the 
prior something right, was, which can only be ascer- 
tained by observation and experience. 

Observation in a shed may appear, to some persons, 
to be very tame and unphilosophical ; but by it alone 
some worthy individuals have discovered the cause of 
certain effects which others have deemed unknown or 
unassignable. 

He who resolves never to investigate the cause of 



156 



CAUSES OF FAILURES. 



any other failure than his own, must remain all hie 
life unfit to govern a powerful engine coupled to an 
express train. 

There can be no doubt that he who has made the 
most of his time, and made the most investigations, is 
best qualified to take charge of the most important 
trains. The excellences of our calling are not arrived 
at by chance, but a man must begin with the conviction 
that he is in his proper sphere, a sphere suitable to his 
abilities. With both hands and a bouj^ant will he 
must buckle to, resolved to know all about the engine ; 
all about the laws of combustion, the fire, water, and 
steam ; all about failures, choked fires, priming, and 
the quality of coal. 

Every object exhibited to view upon the line may 
furnish matter for investigation. Even when stand- 
ing by a water-crane, the position of some portion of 
the engine in relation to the column or dip of the crane 
can be taken ; for ever after the information gained 
may be really valuable. The same thing may be said 
of the turn-table ; and such notes, although seemingly 
trifles in themselves, very often enable a man to exhibit 
tact and skill sufficient to warrant his superior in 
recommending him for promotion. 

But whilst diligence is strongly recommended to the 
young driver, who frequently has no other means of 
gleaning facts — for few men will make him as wise 
as themselves — yet there are certain things which 
take place about an engine that require years for 
their solution. No doubt some persons are trying 
to solve them now, and have been trying for years. 
They may have obtained the solution of a few pro- 
blems, which are to them " chance pearls which dili- 



CAUSES OF FAILURES. 157 

gence loveth to gather and hang around the neck of 



memorv " 



To such persons be it known that self-reliance is 
a grand element of character ; it has won Olympic 
crowns and Isthmian laurels ; it confers kinship with 
men who have vindicated their divine right to be held 
in the world's memory. 

Let the master passion of the soul evoke undaunted 
pnergy in pursuit of the attainment of one end, aiming 
at the highest in the spirit of the lowest, prompted by 
the burning thought of reward, which sooner or later 
will come, for earnestness and foresight are steeds which 
never fail. This is a beautiful Persian proverb : " A 
stone that is fit for the wall shall not be left in the 
way." If you are fit for the wall, heed not. Only, be 
fit, squared, polished. Learn such knowledge as is 
necessary and falls within your sphere, and it is certain 
your turn will come. The builders will find you, the 
wall will require your services to fill up a place quite 
as much as you need a place to fill. 



CHAPTER X. 

SHED-DAT. 

Washing out the Boiler. — Previously to washing out the 
boiler, and before the engine is taken into the shed, the 
smoke-box requires to be cleaned and perfectly cleared 
of ashes with the shovel and the hand-brush, so that 
the wash-out plugs can be easily taken out and that 
there may not be any ashes to be washed into the 
tubes. 

To cool a boiler down quickly, and without injuring 
the plates, after all the steam is blown out of it, let out 
the hot water, and allow the boiler to stand for several 
hours, when the whole of it gradually cools down. 
Two persons are required to wash out a boiler properly. 
The washing -out rods should be of copper, that the 
plug-hole threads may not be damaged by the rods. 
The hose should be placed first over the top of the 
fire-box, next in the chimney-end, and afterwards in 
each mud-hole or plug-hole around the bottom of the 
fire-box. After the boiler has become perfectly clean, 
which may be known by the colour of the water run- 
ning out of it, it should be thoroughly examined with 
a small spirit-lamp, on the end of a piece of copper 
wire, by the foreman boiler-maker or the running-shed 
foreman. In any case, it should not be left to the 



SHED-DAY. 



159 



driver's judgment. Some one else should share the 
responsibility, and be able to testify as to the manner 
in which the boiler is cleansed every shed-day. The 
most particular parts for examination are the stays 
around the fire-box, upon which the dirt sometimes 
lodges, and is accumulated until the copper is damaged, 
causing it to bulge inside of the box, and thereby 
throwing a very severe strain on the stays near it. 
Many fire-boxes have been completely ruined by dirt. 

After the boiler is perfectly washed out, the plugs 
before they are put in require to be greased, to prevent 
their sticking, and so requiring extra power to get them 
out again, after having been exposed for a time to the 
action of the water and steam. 

The driver or the leading hand of the washers-out 
should always restore the plugs to their places. Inex- 
perienced men have occasionally put them in across 
thread — a mishap which has in many instances led to 
serious delay, in consequence of the steam blowing 
through the opening made by the plug in its oblique 
position, and the necessity for letting off the water to 
get the plug properly replaced. 

When the boiler is cold and the plug is out, the 
latter does not require to be screwed in so frightfully 
tight, because when the boiler is warmed up it expands 
and closes on the plug ; and therefore a plug put in 
tight when the boiler is cold becomes still tighter when 
the boiler is hot ; and this is invariably the condition 
of the boiler when plugs are withdrawn. 

Filling the Boiler. — Whilst the boiler is being filled 
with water, or being emptied, the regulator should be 
opened ; the reason of which will be explained in the 
chapter on Pneumatics. 



160 



SHED-DAY. 



For raising steam in a tight boiler, it is sufficier t to 
fill it for about two-thirds of its capacity ; for water 
expands when heated. After the boiler is filled the 
regulator should be shut. 

Examination of the Fire-box. — On shed-days the 
driver should get inside the fire-box and thoroughly 
examine with a light everything in it, down to the 
fire-bars. By such an examination he acquires some 
knowledge of the construction of the box, and he 
acquires confidence. 

When the copper plate round the stay-heads is 
bulged, the bulging is generally a sign of the presence 
of dirt at the back of the plate, which requires to 
be at once removed. The brick arch, when it begins 
to get shaky in the middle, requires to be attended to. 
It is generally formed to a versed sine of six inches. 

The Mounting. — On shed-day, or, as it is sometimes 
described, shady day, all the gauge- cocks, safety-cocks, 
and other cocks are generally examined. When the 
plug of a cock requires to be ground in, it should not 
be treated with emery, but with silver sand. Some- 
times the plug of a cock causes a leak, in consequence 
of its bearing hard at one end ; then with a fine file 
it is reduced a little. A very little reduction is often 
sufficient to enable the plug to touch the shell all the way 
through. The grinding is generally done with water 
and sand, and as the plug is lifted up and down during 
the process of grinding, the hand at the same time sets 
the plug down in the shell at a difierent place each 
time, to avoid making the shell oval. 

When the shell requires grinding, a leaden plug is 
used, cast in sand from the proper plug, making allow- 
ance for increased size by rapping the pattern plug in 



SHED-DAY. 161 

tlie mould. Tlie lead plug should be provided with a 
handle at one end. 

AYhen the lead plug is fitted, by grinding with sand 
and water, to the shell, should the shell not touch the 
proper brass plug in the centre, the lead plug is reduced 
in the middle by a file, so that it bears only at the ends 
on the shell. Being thus eased in the centre, the lead 
plug will rub down the shell at both ends until it has 
worn and restored the interior of the shell to the form 
of a true cone. 

The plug and the shell require to be perfectly freed 
from sand before they are put in working trim. They 
should also be tallowed. Every plug about the boiler 
should be properly attended to, and made perfectly 
steam-tight. The taps of the gauge-cock require extra 
care ; and, whilst being perfectly tight, they should be 
workable at all times by the thumb and forefinger only. 
The screw-plug, which is in a direct line with the water- 
way into the boiler, should be taken out and the water- 
way cleaned. 

It is a sure indication of a third-rate engineman when 
we hear of a gauge-glass breaking and giving people a 
wetting ; but several men have made very serious mis- 
takes by neglecting the cocks. In one instance, when 
the glass broke while the driver was trjang with the 
shovel to shut off" the steam and the water, he lost all 
thought of W — distant signal, which was against him, 
and he ran into a horse-box standino^ at the station. 

A very promising young driver, who had just relieved 
another driver, lost his life entirely through the bad 
condition in which the gauge-taps were left by the first 
driver. The glass broke, and the relieving-driver, find- 
ing that he could not shut the cocks, proceeded towards 



162 SHED-DAY. 

the back of tlie tender to obtain a monkey-spanner, 
which he constantly carried with him. In the excite- 
ment of the moment, the steam and the water blowing 
about, he forgot to look out for bridges, and was unfor- 
tunately knocked ojff the tender and killed. 

On shed-day, every little job should be attended to 
by the driver, or the fireman, or a fitter. To do so 
thoroughly a little foresight is needed, and especially 
where the appliances of the running-shed are limited. 
It is therefore desirable that it should be pretty well 
known, in advance, by the foreman and the fitter, what 
is required to be done to an engine on the shed- day, 
when it comes round. 

It has happened, in consequence of the driver's specu- 
lating on everything necessary being found in the 
stores, that several days' running has been lost to the 
company by engines which might have been at work, 
had the driver given timely notice of what was required 
to be done. Some pumps fail gradually, working with 
a harder knock every day. The foreman receives no 
notice of the failure, until driver A reports that the 
engine -pumps have given out. The result may be 
that the repairs are such that the engine must be 
stopped between its shed-days, and the other engines 
which have their regular shed-days are neglected in 
order to attend to that engine. Hence a host of risks 
may be encountered through the dilatoriness of one 
man in reporting defects as soon as they are dis- 
covered. 

When engines fail by the want of timely reporting, 
the failure is, properly speaking, that of the man, not 
of the engine. He fails in carrying out his obligation 
to his superintendent, who, though he is not always on 



SHED-DAY. 163 

the engine, is nevertheless accountable to Lis directors 
for the proper performance of the engine. 

Cleaning the Tubes. — On shed-days the tubes require 
to be cleaned and cleared of ashes. There is scarcely a 
tube but has about five square feet of heating surface in 
it, and one might enter many a shed and find engines 
having, say, six tubes totally choked with ashes. These 
tubes contain, say, thirty square feet of heating surface. 
Now to form a proper and permanent idea of what six 
stopped-up tubes signify, let a young engineman mark 
thirty square feet of surface upon, the ground, and the 
importance of thirty square feet of heating surface 
will be impressed upon his mind. Where there are a 
sufficient number of engines, it is economical to employ 
men specially to sweep the tubes, or to see that the fire- 
man makes every tube perfectly clear by examining 
them. 

On the first shed-day in each month the tender should 
be washed out and examined inside. 

Packing the Glands. — On shed-day all the glands 
require to be attended to — re-packed, and furnished 
with nice clean trimmings or swabs. 

When patent packing is employed to keep the gland 
tight, with break -joints, it should not be screwed ton 
tight, for thus the material would be pinched to such 
an extent that the lubrication could not penetrate the 
packing, and its value would be lost. 

On shed-day the tool -boxes, &c., should be over- 
hauled, and superfluities thrown away. There should 
be a place for everything, everything should be in its 
place, and there should be a use for everything which 
occupies a place. 

Re-metalling a Brass. — The following is the method 



164 SHED-DAY. 

generally adopted for re-metalling a brass, tliougli it is 
not often that an engineman is required to do this : — 
The brass is first held over a fire, to melt out any metal 
remaining in it, and to free it of all foreign matter, as 
grease and dirt. If the tin is melted or destroyed, the 
recess in the brass will require to be washed with spirits 
of salts and re-tinned before the white metal will hold. 
To tin the brass, it is heated until it will melt block-tin, 
with which those parts intended for white metal should 
be thinly coated. The brass is then allowed to cool, 
but should yet be quite hot when the metal is poured 
into the recess. 

Brasses require to fit easily on the journal ; they 
should be tight nowhere. The horizontal channel in 
the crown must be clear, to secure a body of lubrication 
near the axle. The keep underneath must not touch 
the journal. 

Big-end brasses should be brass-and-brass when put 
together ; and, when the axle is cold, a little play 
should be allowed between the brass and the journal, 
for the latter to fill when expanded by heat, whether 
the heat be derived from the fire-box or generated by 
the work on the journal. The heat from the fire-box, 
however, has been known to make a big-end too tight, 
which, when put together^ was considered a superb fit. 



PART II. 

SCIEIN'TIFIC PEIXCIPLES. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE INDICATOR. 

By means of the indicator, an instrument originally 
invented by James Watt, and improved by others, 
diagrams are traced with a lead pencil on a small 
piece of paper, representing the action of steam in the 
cylinder. 

Yery accurate information respecting the character 
of the distribution of steam to the cylinders by the 
slide-valves may thus be obtained, together with parti- 
culars of the pressure, and its variations, at all points 
of the stroke. It is by means of this instrument alone 
that it has been discovered that the pressure in the 
cylinder is several pounds per square inch below that 
in the boiler — a fact which is due to the radiation of 
heat, the resistance of bends in the pipes, and wire- 
drawing of steam. 

The indicator is to the engine-builder exactly of the 
same importance as the pressure-gauge is to the engine- 
driver. B}^ the former, the state of the valves and the 
motion is ascertained ; and by the latter, the state of 



166 



SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES. 



the fire and the temperature of water in the boiler are 
ascertained. 

Fig. 11 is a representation of a normal diagram, 
taken by the indicator at a low speed ; when the pace 
is increased the tracing is more irregular, but still, to 
an experienced judge, the nature of the distribution — 
too soon or too late, &c. — is clearly defined. 

The indicator consists of a miniature cylinder and 



Steam Stroke=24" 



AOMlSSfO/V 



icons 




2't2322 2J20JS?JSJ7J6I5H13i2 11 10S87\6 5-f5S 

L EXHAUST STR QKC ^| 

Fig. 11. — Normal Indicator Diagram. 

piston, fitted with a spiral spring to resist ihe pressure 
of the steam. It is connected to the cylinder- cover, 
or covers, of the engine ; and when the communicating 
cock is opened the steam from the engine-cylinder 
acts upon the indicator-piston and compresses the 
spring, which resumes its normal position at the line 
of atmospheric pressure when the pressure is with- 



THE INDICATOR AND DIAGRAM. 167 

drawu by the exhaust of the steam. The piston-rod of 
the indicator is so fitted as to govern the movements of 
a small lever, which carries a lead pencil that is brought 
in contact with a piece of white paper coiled round a 
barrel, fixed on a bracket in a vertical position by the 
side of the cylinder. The barrel turns on a vertical 
pivot, on which it receives a reciprocating movement 
from the cross-head of the engine, representing the 
stroke of the engine, and quite independent of the 
movements of the indicator-piston, which are vertical, 
capable only of marking a vertical line, which would 
represent the minimum and maximum pressure, with- 
out the variations, during one stroke of the engine — 
neither would the line teach anj^thing respecting the 
valves. 

Timing the steam at all points of the stroke, the 

Point of admission, 
Period of ditto, 
Point of suppression, 
Period of ditto. 
Point of release. 
Period of ditto. 
Point of compression, 
Period of ditto, 

are to be obtained and traced through the medium of 
the barrel, which it is now necessary to describe more 
particularly. On its face is fixed a graduated scale> 
say from 10 to 150, which is intended, with a suitable 
spring in the cylinder, to register, by means of the 
pencil attached to the indicator piston-rod, the pressure 
of the steam in the engine-cylinder. Within the 
barrel is fixed a kind of watch-spring, but very much 



168 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES. 

stronger tlian a watch-spring ; and at the foot, outside, 
a pulley is fitted, having a groove in it. At the bottom 
of the groove the end of a cord is made fast, and 
wound round once or twice ; this cord is also, at the 
opposite end, fastened to the cross-head of the engine, 
which, when in motion, pulls the barrel round once at 
each stroke, and the force of the spring returns it to 
the original position. 

But it must be observed that while the engine-piston 
moves, say, 2 feet, the motion of the barrel can be 
reduced, by a system of levers very simply arranged, to 
the length of the required diagram, viz. 4 or 5 inches. 

From what has now been stated, when the steam is 
put on and the engine begins to make a move, pro- 
vided all things are ready — pencil in contact with the 
paper, and the cross-head of the engine connected to 
the card-barrel by a cord — we obtain two different 
motions, which are absolutely necessary to know exactly 
what the steam is doing. The motion of the indicator- 
pencil is vertical, and that of the barrel horizontal. 
Instantaneously the steam drives up the pencil and 
scores the pressure in the cylinder, making the line a b ; 
when the pencil gets to b it remains still, the pressure 
underneath the spring being continuous ; but the barrel 
still moves round, and the pencil therefore marks the 
line in the direction of c from b. At c we find a change, 
that is produced not by the barrel but by the indicator- 
cylinder, which marks a reduction of pressure. Owing 
to the valve having closed the steam-port, the pressure 
becomes gradually less from c to f/, which is the period 
of expansion ; at d there is a second decrease of pres- 
sure, owing to the exhaust-port being opened, and the 
steam being released from behind the piston, and the 



THE INDICA.TOR AND DIAGRAM. 169 

pencil consequently falls to the eduction corner, e. The 
line 6" /is marked by the pencil during the return stroke 
of the piston, and whilst the spring in the barrel is 
returning the latter to its normal position. The line 
G H is called the atmospheric line, and it is made by the 
indicator, before steam is admitted to its cylinder, by 
moving the barrel round ; its object is of the utmost 
importance, as it enables the engineer to measure the 
amount of back pressure, as shown in the diagram. In 
a locomotive diagram the return-stroke line never 
crosses the atmospheric line, but in a condensing engine 
it does, with a good vacuum, produced by the condenser 
and air-pump. 

Once more, it should be observed on the diagram 
that just before the pencil arrives at the admission 
corner it leaves the back-pressure line, and cuts the 
corner off, to join the line ah again. This requires 
some slight notice, because the circumstance may be 
produced by two widely different causes, viz. by 
cushioning and by pre-admission. Cushioning is pro- 
duced, and increases as the admission is reduced, by 
steam remaining in the cylinder after the exhaust- 
port is closed ; there being no w^ay of escape, it 
is compressed between the piston -head and cover, 
and hence the cause of the pressure in the cylinder, 
increasing and driving the pencil up before reaching 
the corner, a. This corner, «, is also cut off by the 
pencil under the influence of pre-admission, or, more 
plainly speaking, by the lead given to the valve in 
advance of the piston. "We have now traced the 
diagram through a complete revolution of the wheel, 
and, before concluding this subject, it will be profit- 
able to notice some changes that appear on a dia- 



170 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES. 

gram taken from an engine labouring under slight 
defects. 

For instance, if, instead of a straight line, a b, we 
get one slanting to the left, towards c, the valve is 
without lead, and the eccentric requires to be shifted 
a little more in advance of the crank, or the valve- 
spindle is too long. If the lead corner is cut off too 
much, the valve has too much lead, and the eccentric 
requires to be shifted a little more towards the crank. 

If the expansion corner, c, slopes too much towards 
the eduction corner, dj instead of presenting a tolerable 
good round corner, it shows the steam is wire-drawn, 
that is, a certain amount of elasticity is taken out of the 
steam, either by the regulator being partially open, 
instead of wide open, or through the steam-pipes aud 
steam-ports not being properly proportioned and there- 
by causing the steam to condense in forcing its way to 
the cylinder. This imperfection also affects the full 
steam line, b c, causing it to dip before reaching c, in- 
stead of maintaining a horizontal line. If the eduction 
corner, d, is rounded off too much, and the back pres- 
sure line remains too far from the atmospheric line, 
with excessive cushioning at the admission corner, it 
shows the engine has too much inside lap and cannot 
clear herself of steam. 



CHAPTER II. 

HYDROSTATICS— HYDRAULICS— PNEUMATIca 

Hydrostatics. 

The Science of the Gravitation of Fluids. — From tho 
experiments which have been made in this branch of 
natural philosophy, we are taught that fluids press per- 
pendicularly, vertically, laterally, and in every direction 
equally. 

The vertical or downward pressure of fluids is in 
common with that of solids. The pressure of water 
vertically is illustrated in the case of the gauge-glass. 
The pressure of fluids laterally or sideways is demon- 
strated by seeing water flow out of the side of the fire- 
box. It is an important principle in hydrostatics that 
the surfaces of all waters in free communication with 
each other are in one level. By the property of 
the gravitation of water inducing the tendency to find 
a common level, hydraulic engineers are enabled to 
supply our principal towns and city with water from 
reservoirs, situated on an elevated spot, and sometimes 
several miles ofi" the dwellings of the inhabitants. 

Hydraulics. 

The Science of Fluids in Motion. — Under this branch 
of natural philosophy we find the locomotive pump, 



172 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPTES. 

out of whicli water is forced into tlie boiler. "When the 
feed is opened on the tender, the water in many 
instances falls into the pump-barrel, and, when the ram 
is drawn outwards, fills it — the water running through 
the bottom clack, which is purposely constructed to open 
into the pump-chamber only. On the inward motion of 
ram commencing, the water, being pressed by the ram, 
closes the bottom clack and lifts the middle one, which 
is constructed to open so as to allow the 'water to 
escape into the delivery-pipe. As soon as the ram 
reverses its motion, to leave the pump, the middle clacks 
close, through the water already in the delivery-pipe 
attempting to drojD back into the pump-barrel, and at 
the same instant the bottom clack opens and, as the 
ram proceeds, charges the pump with water again. 
Assuming that the delivery-pipe and pump are filled 
with water when the ram returns into the barrel, it is 
evident, owing to the bottom clack preventing the watei 
from running to the feed-pipe and tender again, by 
great pressure the water must move to somewhere to 
make room for the ram, for water is incompressible, and 
therefore the top and middle clacks are designed to 
meet the case — opening towards the boiler, and thereby 
allowing the ram, when entering the pump, to force 
a stream of water corresponding to its length and 
diameter into the boiler at each alternate stroke. 

There are a variety of small deficiencies which, either 
wholly or partially, prevent pumps from working. 

In practice the bottom clack has a little more lift 
than the others to insure a good supply of water ; but 
notwithstanding this arrangement some pumps do 
not work efficiently. The want of efficiency may arise 
from several causes. Sometimes the feed-pipe gets 



HYDROSTATICS, ETC. 173 

partially made up witli dirt, waste, and lime ; the lime 
is the result of blowing the steam back through the 
feed-jDij^e to the tender. These obstructives prevent 
the pump from filling properly with water, in time for 
the plunger to force it into the delivery-pipe, when 
entering the barrel. Sometimes the bottom clack fails 
to work properly by not closing promptly, allowing 
some water to return past it towards the tender. To 
prevent this reverse movement ball- valves are generally 
employed. Sometimes, with a tight gland, the barrel is 
charged with air, which is separated from the water by 
the churning action of the ram, and air being, unlike 
water, compressible, it is not forced into the boiler, but 
remains in the pump, its pressure being sufiicient to 
prevent the bottom clack from acting. Sometimes the 
water-way into the boiler is nearly closed up, and 
therefore cannot pass the water as fast as the pump 
delivers it, when the top-clack joint is broken.* 

Pneumatics. 

The Science of the Air. — It was discovered by Torri- 
celli, in the seventeenth century, that air was a material 
substance, having weight, elasticity, and compressibility. 
The weight of the atmosphere is found to be equal to 
a pressure of about 15 lbs. per square inch of surface. 
Suppose a vessel capable of resisting a pressure of 15 lbs. 
per square inch only, with both ends made up, and the 
whole perfectly air-tight ; on extracting the air from 
the interior by means of an air-pump, the vessel would 
collapse, for the external atmosj)heric air would make it 

* The object of the holes in the feed-pipes is to let out the air : this 
takes the knock off the pump. 



174 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES. 

as flat as a pancake. There is nothing like fixing the 
fact in the mind that air is a real body, and, although 
we cannot grasp it by stretching out the hand, yet 
there are many little incidents which occur about a loco- 
motive, proving that it is a substance just as much as 
water is, or a piece of iron. Let us take the presence 
of air in the pump for one illustration, and almost every 
fireman is sufficiently informed, superficially, to know 
that the pump will not act when the feed-water is put 
on until the pet-cock is opened. 

Why it would not act is not quite so clear to him 
until he has learned pneumatics, and satisfied himself 
that air is a real substance, and that, while it occupies 
the space in the pump, water could not enter. Two 
bodies cannot occupy the same space. 

But how comes it that, when the pet-pipe is opened, 
the air rushes out very cold sometimes, colder than the 
water in the tender, colder than the pump or the ram, 
and colder than the atmospheric air through which the 
engine is running ? To illustrate the pressure of the 
air, we cannot find anything better than a mud-hole in 
the bottom of the outside fire-box or shell. When a 
plug is withdrawn, with the regulator tight or shut, 
the water refuses to leave the boiler ; sometimes it will 
run for a few seconds, and then stop entirely. 

This interesting phenomenon is caused by the pres- 
sure of the atmosphere on the surface of the water at 
the mud-hole, which is more than sufficient to balance 
the weight of water around and above the mud-hole. 

As soon as the regulator or the whistle is opened, 
making a communication with the external atmo- 
sphere, the air rushes into the boiler, and balances by its 
pressure on the surface of the water the external pres- 



PNEUMATICS. 17o 

sure at tBe mud-hole ; when the water, under hydro- 
static pressure, at once rushes out at the mud-hole. 
Once more : when the steam in a locomotive boiler, 
with a tight regulator and whistle, is dropped — con- 
verted again to water — there is a vacuum formed above 
the water, that is, a space with nothing in it ; and if 
the feed-pipes are opened the water from the tender 
will actually run into the boiler and fill it. This is 
caused by the atmospheric pressure of 15 lbs. per square 
inch acting on the surface of the water in the tender, 
against the non-resisting vacuum in the boiler. The 
axiom that " Nature abhors a vacuum " is here fully 
illustrated. 

The elasticity of air is proved by its rushing out of 
the pet-pipe, or by its rushing into the boiler when the 
regulator is open. 

Again, when a boiler has been filled up with water, and 
the regulator and the whistle have been closed, if the 
whistle be opened shortly after the fire is lighted in the 
fire-box, the air, hitherto confined, rushes out, and, if 
the pressure be sufficient, sounds the whistle. That it 
is not steam may be proved by placing the hand near 
it ; it will be sometimes very cold, although the chill is 
ofi* the water. How is this? When the boiler is 
partly full of cold water, and the regulator, &c., shut 
tight, the heat that is communicated to the water is 
partly transmitted to and raises the temperature of the 
air, at the same time that the water, by its expansion, 
compresses the air into a smaller volume. The result is 
that the pressure of the air is raised above atmospheric 
pressure. This is a proof of the compressibility as well 
as the elasticity of air. Or it may be proved thus : 
Shut the regulator of an empty boiler full of air. 



176 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES. 

and run water into it through the feed-pipe. The air 
will be compressed until it balances the pressure of 
the water in the main, if filled from the waterworks, 
and the exact pressure may be found on the pressure- 
gauge. Again, if we place one finger on the upper 
end of a gauge-glass to make it air-tight, and then dip 
the open end into water, the level of the water in the 
glass will be slightly higher than that outside of it, 
which proves that the air in the glass is compressed. 



CHAPTER III. 

PRINCIPLES OF COMBUSTION. 

Coal contains carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen 
in about tbe following proportions : — 



751 per 


cent. 


of Carbon 


H 


>» 


Hydrogen 


16 


»> 


Nitrogen 


H 


>> 


Oxygen 



The percentage of each element varies with different 
coals. The proportion of carbon, which is the chief 
source of heating power, is subject to the greatest ex- 
tent of variation. The more carbon there is, the more 
water will be evaporated per pound of coal. Combustion 
is a chemical combination, resulting in heat and light, 
and when coal burns in the fire-box of a locomotive 
engine, this chemical combination is sustained by means 
of oxygen (the supporting element of atmospheric air) 
introduced into the box in proportion to the amount of 
fuel the box contains. The admission of too much air 
or oxygen does injury, by cooling the plates of the fire- 
box and reducing the temperature of the water in the 
boiler. By a want of sufficient air, on the contrary, 
the combustible gases are not all ignited — they escape 
wasted from the chimney. In some cases they take fire 
on coming in contact with the atmosphere at the top 



178 COMBUSTION. 

of the chimney — a fact which may be seen as a rail- 
way train passes on a dark night. 

Perfect combustion is attended by intense heat, and 
is only effected in the engine by practice and close 
observation. It is controlled by the most simple laws, 
which, when recognised, are capable of not only annihi- 
lating a clinker, but, as is well known, burning and 
melting the fire-bars. 

Combustion cannot take place without the assist- 
ance of oxygen. By excluding this agent of nature 
a fire can be put out. Oxygen is then clearly ne- 
cessary, and it governs combustion entirely. It is 
capable of being controlled, both in quantity and in 
the direction of its action, and by paying strict at- 
tention to the condition on which its action is de- 
pendent, an engineman can safely work his engine 
fire without being afraid of running short of steam. 
Let us assume, for a moment, that we are looking into 
a locomotive fire-bux at a smouldering fire without 
a gleam of light about it — all smoke. The gases 
that are escaping are hydrogen, hydruret of carbon, 
bihydruret of carbon, bicarburetted hydrogen, carbonic 
oxide, and carbon vcfpour, which are all inflammables, 
capable of generating intense heat ; but their calo- 
rific value is lost, owing to the supporters of combus- 
tion — oxygen and atmospheric air — being stinted in 
supply. 

We will now suppose that a better supply of air is 
introduced below and above the fire. So soon as the 
oxygen comes in contact with the incandescent fuel 
they combine, and the gases instantly take fire. The 
inflammables are changed, and the fire-box above the 
fire presents quite a cheering appearance, owing to the 



COMBUSTION. 179 

combustion being perfect, producing nitrogen, carbonic 
acid, sulphurous acid, and aqueous vapour. The more 
the oxygen, withiu proper limits, the greater the heat, 
the whiter the fire. The quantity of atmospheric air 
absolutely necessary for the combustion of a pound of 
fuel is 13J lbs., but in practice twice this amount is 
required to be admitted to the fire-box to support 
perfect combustion, owing to the blast drawing the air 
through the tubes before it can render the best service 
in the furnace. 

To consume the smoke in a locomotive fire-box — and 
it can be consumed — requires a fire not too deep for 
the load or the blast. It is a great mistake to burn 
the carbonic oxide in the tubes instead of on the grate, 
which is sometimes done by drivers who work their 
engine with the dampers shut. Having a large area of 
grate, they place a large fire on it, which enables them 
to get plenty of steam — with closed dampers ; but the 
consequence is that the tubes frequently require sweep- 
ing out. If he opened the front damper, the carbonic 
oxide would be burned over the grate, and the tubes 
would be maintained perfectly clear of carbon or soot. 
If we analyse the contents of some chimney- ends we 
find the steam-pipes, the blast-pipe, and the walls of the 
smoke-box deeply coated with carbon that has escaped 
through the tubes — the result of imperfect combustion 
in the box, where every particle of smoke should be 
divested of vapoury gas which adheres to the tube-ends,' 
and coats the interior of the tubes until the poor engine 
is absolutely choked. There is, without doubt, great 
need for inspectors to go round to farmyards, where 
threshing and traction engines are employed, to in- 
struct the enginemen how to burn their engine smoke^ 



180 COMBUSTION. 

It IS unnecessary to point out that what is deemed 
best to do on a locomotive to burn the smoke, is 
in every respect applicable to portable and traction- 
engines. 



CHAPTER IV. 

STEAM AND THE PEINCIPLE OF ITS EXPANSION. 

Steam proper is wholly invisible, and therefore cannot 
be seen above the water in the gauge-glass ; it is also 
elastic and dry, but as soon as it comes in contact with 
the atmosphere it loses those properties and becomes 
vapour, and is visible and moist. 

The pressure of steam is measured by atmospheres. 
Steam of 15 lbs. per square inch is steam of one atmo- 
sphere. Its pressure, and consequently its elasticity, 
is, in a locomotive boiler, sometimes increased to up- 
wards of 9 atmospheres, or 140 lbs. per square inch, 
effective pressure. The repulsive power of steam may 
be compared to that of a compressed vertical spring, 
ready to expand on the resistance being withdrawn, 
wholly or partially. High-pressure steam, on enter- 
ing the cylinder of an engine, is opposed by the cylin- 
der-cover and the piston. On the former, the pres- 
sure of the steam makes no impression. But upon 
the latter, whose resistance is only equal to the friction 
of the engine and vehicles attached to it, and also the 
resistance of the atmosphere, the pressure of the steam 
acts as a motive power, overcoming those resistances. 
When the steam-pressure applied to the piston materi- 
allv exceeds the amount of the resistances, the redundant 



182 EXPAKSION OF STEAM. 

pressure goes to increase the speed of tlie engine, and 
so long as the pressure of the steam is greater than the 
counteracting friction of the engine and vehicles, the 
motion of the train must be accelerated or increased. 
But, beside the friction of axles, &c., a train in motion 
is opposed by the atmosphere, and as the speed increases 
the resistance of the atmosphere also increases, in the 
ratio of the square of the speed ; that is, for example, 
if the speed is doubled, the resistance of the atmosphere 
is increased four times, since a greater volume of air is 
to be cut and run through in less time. When the work 
of friction and resistance is exactly equal to the power 
applied to the piston in the cylinder, the engine and 
train attain a uniform motion, which is called the 
greatest or maximum speed. 

The expansive working of steam is effected in the 
following manner. The steam is not allowed to follow 
the piston for the whole length of the stroke. The 
supply from the boiler to the cylinder is, on the con- 
trary, cut off by means of the valve-gear, when the 
piston has only travelled a portion of the stroke ; and 
the steam thus shut into the cylinder expands like a 
compressed steel spring against the piston for the re- 
mainder of the stroke. The pressure of the steam is 
reduced nearly in proportion as it expands in volume. 
For the purpose of calculating power and work done, it 
may be assumed that the pressure is reduced just as the 
volume is increased. 

Let a steam-cylinder, 18 inches in diameter, and 
having a stroke of 24 inches, be represented by the 
annexed diagram. 

Let the steam be admitted to the cylinder during a 
fourth of the stroke, at the pressure in the boiler of* 



EXPANSION OF STEAM. 



183 



Pressure of Steam ■s\'orked expansively in a Cylinder. 



inchos 
1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 

18 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 



120 X 6 
17 



= 42-31 



>» 



120x6 

18 



= 40 



>» 



1472-41 
18 



= 81-80 lbs. 



>» 



» 



Total pressures 120 lbs., 


effective 


pressure 


105 lbs. 




120 


it 


» 


105 




120 


>» 


n 


105 




120 


» 


» 


105 




120 


» 


j> 


105 




120 


» 


»> 


105 


120x6 

7 


— 102-85 


71 


»> 


88-85 


120 X 6 

8 


— 90 


»> 


» 


75 


120 X 6 
9 


— 80 


» 


j> 


65 


120 X 6 
10 


— 72 


n 


» 


57 


120 x6 
11 


= 65-45 


» 


5> 


50-45 


120X6 
12 


— 60 


n 


>J 


45 


120x6 
13 


=: 55-38 


ft 


» 


40-38 


120 X 6 
14 


= 51-42 


»» 


»» 


36-42 


1-20 X 6 
15 


— 48 


w 


»> 


33 


120 X 6 
16 


— 45 


>» 


» 


30 



27-31 



25 



per 

cent, of 

stroke. 



25 



50 



76 



100 



A^2;41 ^ 66-8 Iba. 
18 



184 EXPANSION OF STEAM. 

say, J 05 lbs. effective pressure per square inch, or, 
adding tlie pressure of the atmosphere, J 20 lbs. total 
pressure per square inch ; and let the steam, after 
having been expanded until the piston has described 
three-fourths of the stroke, be exhausted into the 
atmosphere. The whole pressure in the boiler, 120 lbs., 
is marked in the figure, as following up the piston for 
6 inches of the stroke, when it is cut off, and the total 
pressure is reduced at the end of the 7th inch, inversely 
in the proportion of 6 to 7 (120 lbs. xf=) 102-85 lbs. 
per square inch. The pressures at the ends of succes- 
sive inches of the stroke are calculated in the same 
way, until, when 12 inches of the stroke are completed 
and the volume is doubled, the pressure falls to half 
the initial pressure, or to (120 lbs. X i^ =) 60 lbs. per 
square inch. When the piston has completed 18 
inches of the stroke, or f ths, the valve opens the port 
fco the exhaust, and the expanded steam, reduced to 
(120 lbs. X A =) 40 lbs. total pressure, or 25 lbs. 
effective pressure, leaves the cylinder. 

A second column of pressures is added on the 
diagram, showing the net or effective pressures above 
the atmospheric pressure, which is taken at 15 lbs. per 
square inch. 

From these data, it is seen that the average total 
pressure during the 18 inches of the stroke is ap- 
proximately 81*8 lbs. per square inch, and that the 
average effective pressure is 66'8 lbs. per square 
inch. 

The influence of the clearance at each end of the 
cylinder, on the variation of the pressure, has not here 
been taken into account. The greater the volume of 
clearance, the less rapidly does the pressure fall. 



EXPANSION OF STEAM. 185 

« 

Calculation of the Effective Average Pressure. — In 
practice, tliougli the exhaust is opened to the steam 
before the piston has completed the stroke, the pressure 
durinj^ the remainder of the stroke is not instantly- 
reduced to atmospheric pressure. On the contrary, the 
pressure falls so slowly that at working speeds the 
reduction of pressure to the end of the stroke may be 
assumed to be simply that due to the enlargement of 
volume. It was seen even in the indicator-diagram 
(page 134), taken at a very slow speed, that the fall of 
pressure from the opening of the exhaust at d, did not 
reduce the pressure to atmospheric pressure until the 
piston reached the end of the stroke. At ordinary 
working speeds the curve of exhaust would nearly 
follow the regular expansion line, d e. It may there- 
fore be assumed, for the sake of simplicity, that the 
steam is regularly^ expanded to the end of the stroke. 
Again, the back pressure, partly of exhaust and partly 
of compression, is to be deducted from the positive 
pressure to give the effective average pressure on the 
piston. The following formula is given by Mr. D. K. 
Clark* for the average effective pressure in the 
cylinder : — 

, ,, P \l' (1 + hyp. log. E') - C-] 

in which p and p' are the average positive pressure and 
the average back pressure, in lbs. per square inch, on 
the piston, including atmospheric pressure, and (;; — p') 
is the average effective pressure ; P is the total initial 
pressure ; I' is the period of admission plus the 
clearance ; c is the clearance measured in parts of the 

• "Manual of Rules, Tables, and Data," p. 830. 



186 EXPANSION OF STEAIM. 

stroke ; K' is tlie actual ratio of expansion, being equal 
to tlie stroke plus the clearance, divided by the period 
of admission plus the clearance ; and L is the length 
of the stroke. The lineal dimensions are all in feet or 
all in inches. 

The foregoing formula may be expressed by the 
following rule : — 

Rule. — To find the Average Effective Pressure on the 
Piston. — To the hyperbolic logarithm of the actual 
ratio of expansion add 1, and multiply the sum by 
the period of admission plus the clearance. From the 
product deduct the clearance, and multiply the re- 
mainder by the total initial pressure of the steam 
admitted to the cylinder. Divide the product by the 
length of the stroke, and from the quotient deduct the 
total average back pressure. The remainder is the 
average effective pressure on the piston. 

For example, taking the data already given, and 
assuming an amount of clearance equivalent to per 
cent, of the stroke, or 1-2 inches ; P = 120, / = 6 4-l'2 

=7-2 inches, R'=?i-tl:^== 3'^' L=24, //=say 

20 lbs. (or 15 lbs. atmospheric -j- 5 lbs.). Then the 
hj^perbolic logarithm of 3*5 is 1*25276, and 

___ , __ 120 [7-2 (1 + 1-25276) — 1-2] _ ^0 • 
P P - 24 

__ 120il6;2_-r2]__ 20=75 -20=55 lbs., 
~ 24 

the average effective pressure on the piston for the 
whole of the stroke. 



EXPANSION OF STEAM. 



187 



Table of Hyperbolic Logarithms. 



No. 


Log. 


No. 


Log. 


1 

No. 


Log. 


n 


•22314 


H 


1-17865 


H 


1-65823 


H 


•40547 


3i 


1-25276 


5i 


1-70447 


H 


•55962 


H 


1-32176 


5| 


1-74920 


2 


•69315 


4 


1-3S626 


6 


1-79176 


H 


•81093 


H 


1-44692 


6i 


1-83258 


2i 


•91629 


4i 


1-50408 


6^ 


1-87180 


2| 


1-01160 


4f 


1-55814 


H 


1-90954 


3 


1-09861 


5 


1-60944 


7 


1-94591 



CHAPTEK V. 

PEINCIPLE OF THE SAFETY-YALVE LEVER. 

If the distance between p and f is five times tlie dis- 
tance between f and w, a mechanical advantage is 
gained, because a small weight is made to balance a 
large one ; for instance, 1 lb. weight at p will balance 
5 lbs. at w, or 4 lbs. at p will balance 20 at w. 

In the safety-valve lever, the weight is between the 
fulcrum and the power, thus — 

Fio- 12 -, 



^6 

Observe, it is the distance from the power to the 
fulcrum, F, divided by the distance of the weight from 
the fulcrum, that gives the leverage or mechanical 
advantage. Thus, if p and f are 17^ inches apart, and 

J> Fig. 13. y^ J. 



6 



v/ and F are 3J inches apart, then 17J'' -^ 3J := 5, 
the leverage. And 1 lb. weight at P will balance a 
weight of 5 times 1, or 5 lbs., at w. 

The weight, or rather the power, on the end of the 
safety-valve lever of a locomotive engine, is generally 
applied through the elastic action of a helical spring 



SAFETY-VALVES. 189 

properly graduated to indicate any required intervals 
of pressure. The power on the end of the lever, as just 
explained, is multiplied in the ratio of the leverage, 
which immediately results from the principle of equality 
of moments. 

Different engine-makers choose different lengths of 
lever, but the area of the valve on the steam side must 
coincide with the number which expresses the leverage, 
to indicate on the balance so much per square inch. 

Thus— 



Safety-valve . 2| inch diameter :=z 5 square inches area nearly. 

Distance from fulcrum to valve . 31 inches ) , 

Lever 17| „ } ^^"^^^^Se o. 

A weight placed on the end of the lever would have an 
advantage of 5 on the valve, and therefore would act 
as if the valve, though actually of 5 square inches area, 
were reduced to 1 square inch area ; the virtue of 
which coincidence is that when steam is just blowing 
off, the balance indicates the pressure in the boiler per 
square inch. 



PART III. 

CEETIFICATES FOE DEIVEES AND 

FIEEMEIST. 



CHAPTEE I. 

CERTIFICATES FOR LOCOMOTIVE DRIVERS. 

The proposal to establish a system of certificates for 
locomotive drivers has been ventilated in the columns 
of The Engineery and their universal adoption has been 
strongly recommended by the editor. 

Enginemen would not only be improved by certifi- 
cates, exciting a just and honest pride, but certificates 
would, as symbols of service and of competency, give 
much satisfaction. 

The Engineer is of opinion that, " In the first place, 
certificates would enable locomotive superintendents to 
form an excellent opinion as to the capacity, which is a 
different thing from the capabilities, of a man present- 
ing himself for a berth ; and in the second place, they 
would tend to elevate the position of, on the whole, an 
honest, trustworthy, and hardworking body of men. 
Certificates would supply the men with a stimulus to 
exertion ; for they would enable the best men to come 
to the front and take the position which they desired ; 



CERTIFICATES. 191 

and the elevation of the type could scarcely fail to 
prove serviceable not only to the public but to rail- 
way companies." 

The author is of opinion that every driver, before he 
is permitted to take charge of the regulator, shoiild 
serve as a fireman on goods and passenger trains not 
less than 150,000 miles, after which he may ofier to 
pass an examination, and obtain, if possible, a third- 
class certificate, and hold himself in readiness for an 
engine. This certificate might read as follows : — - 

" Third-class Locomotive Driver^s Certificate. 

" This is to certify that J. Stubbs has served as a fire- 
man on goods and passenger engines 150^000 miles or 
upwards, that he has passed a third-class examination, 
and is a competent person to take charge of a locomotive 
engine working goods trains." 

The subjects on which examination should be made, 
to obtain this certificate, should embrace reading, 
writing, signals, examination of engines before joining 
the trains, firing, trimming of syphons, oiling, testing 
of valves and pistons, and the various modes of un- 
coupling engines when they fail with a train. After 
having run 100,000 miles as a driver, and gained 
confidence and experience, a third-class engineman 
should be at liberty to apply for a second-class certifi- 
cate, which might read thus : — 

" Second-class Locomotive Driver's Certificate. 

" This is to certify that N. Forster has served as a 
driver 100,000 miles on goods and passenger trains. 



X\i2 CEllTIFICATES. 

that he has passed a second-class examination, and is a 
competent person to take charge of a locomotive engine 
working passenger trains." 

The subjects to be questioned upon for this certifi- 
cate might be printed on a form, so that they could be 
obtained at any time ; and they should embrace the 
titeam-engine and boiler described generally, combus- 
tion considered practically, steam, and the principle 
of its expansion. After having run with this certificate 
50,000 miles, a driver might be entitled to apply for 
a first-class certificate, which might read ; — 



" First-class Locomotive Engineer's Certificate. 

'' This is to certify that E. Sparrow has served as a 
driver 150,000 miles, that he has passed a third-class, 
second-class, and first-class examination, and is a com- 
petent driver to take charge of a locomotive engine 
working express trains.' 



j> 



The subjects to be questioned on to obtain this 
certificate should be printed on forms and marked, 
"Subject 1," "Subject 2," &c., &c., which should 
embrace — 1st, diagram of the applicant's engine- 
running ; 2nd, drawing of elementary forms ; 3rd, 
working drawing, with dimensions of any j)art of a 
locomotive engine ; 4th, arithmetic, decimals, mensura- 
tion of superficies and solids ; 5th, natural science, 
mechanics to explain the safety-valve lever, hydraulics 
to explain the pump, hydrostatics to explain the water 
in the gauge-glass, pneumatics to explain the pet-cock ; 



CERTIFICATES. 193 

6tli, chemistry, caloric to explain heat and expansion, 
oxygen to explain combustion, composition of coal to 
give the percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitro- 
gen, sulphur, and ash, composition of water to give the 
percentage of oxygen and hydrogen. 

The subjects above specified embrace nearly all that a 
locomotive driver need be expected to know to obtain 
a certificate ; and, as the author is of opinion that the 
time is at hand when such tokens of capacity will be in 
vogue everywhere, he has noticed each subject, and 
given some examples in arithmetic, &c., &c., with rules 
for the benefit of those whose early education was nilj 
but who are ambitious to reach a locomotive driver's 
certificate. 

Some such evidence should be produced by every 
locomotive foreman. The foremen should also hold cer- 
tificates of competency as well as the men. 



o 



CHAPTER II. 

SUBJECTS OF EXAl^HNATION FOE CERTIFICATES. 

Proposition I. 

Conditions on which a Third-class Certificate anight ht 
issued y and the Mode of Examination. 

Reading. — To read the rules applicable to drivers 
and firemen. 

Writing. — To write 12 rules from the Section, 
" Engine Drivers and Firemen." 

Signals. — To describe the use and observance of all 
signals : — - 

Semaphores \ 
Flags > Day. 

Personal ) 

Lamps (lights) 1 ^.^^^^ 
Percussion j * 

Engines. — To describe generally the locomotive en- 
gine 

with inside cylinders, 
outside cylinders, 
double frame, 
„ single „ 
To state the difference in the construction of the 
driving-axle when inside or outside cylinders are em- 
ployed. 

To describe the link-motion, and the position of 
the eccentrics in relation to their respective cranks. 



if 



CERTIFICATES. 195 

To give an explanation of lap and lead, and to point 
out their advantages. 

To describe the means used for preventing a piston 
from leaking or a valve from blowing. 

To state in what position the big and little ends must 
be placed to test the tightness of both pistons and 
valves, without having to move the engine. 

To give some reasons for examining an engine both 
over and off the pit. How should such inspection be 
performed? Give the method to ensure its being 
done efficiently. 

To explain generally the nature of the material 
used in forming the barrel and fire-box shell and fire- 
box. 

To mention the reasons which induce engine-builders 
to strengthen the top of the inside fire-box, and to con- 
nect it with the outside shell. 

To explain the use of the lead-plug. 

To give a description of the foundation- ring, mouth- 
piece, and the method adopted to connect the barrel 
of the boiler to the front tube-plate, and how the latter 
is formed to receive the smoke-box. 

To explain the method of securing the tubes in the 
tube- plate. What are tubes made of generally ? 

To explain the arrangements for carrying the boiler 
on the frame. How is the expansion of the boiler pro- 
vided for ? 

To explain the effects of expansion and contraction 
on the boiler generally. 

To observe that whatever is done again and again 
with certainty must be done upon some principle. If 
it is not, it cannot be repeated. 

To describe the principle advocated in this volume 



196 CERTIFICATES. 

for examination of engines over and off the pit before 
joining the train. 

To explain why an engine should be notched up with 
the steam on. 

To explain wire-drawing as applied to steam. 
To explain how water is economized in working the 
regulator and reversing-lever. 

To explain why it is necessary to know the number 
of vehicles in the train before starting. 

Why is 140 lbs. steam better than 120 lbs. steam? 
To explain, if possible, why the pressure of the slide- 
block is constant in one direction instead of pressing 
first against the top slide-bar and then against the 
bottom one, as the crank moves from the top to the 
bottom centre. 

Trirmning. — To explain capillary attraction and to 
show how a film of oil is capable of preventing two 
bodies from coming in contact with each other. 

To state the principal causes that operate in getting 
an axle hot, viz. — 

A brass may fit too tight end- ways. 

„ ,, have no groove in the crown. 
„ ,, have too much bearing. 
An axle may be irritated by the keep binding against 
it underneath. 

The principle of capillary attraction may be mil- 
llfied— 

By the cotton or worsted being too thick. 
„ „ „ damp. 

dirty. 
,, oil being too thick. 
,, .. „ wet. 

M dirty. 



CERTIFICATES. 197 

To go througli the operation of making plug- 
trimming, and to give an opinion as to what should 
be fitted with it and what with tail-trimming. How 
long should a trimming be allowed to work before 
being renewed ? 

Oiling. — To point out that the operation of oiling, 
to be safe and perfect, must be done systematically. 

To understand that 4 drops of oil per minute will 
keep a big- end cool. 

To observe that a tight syphon button or cork, which 
excludes air, will cause the oil to stop in the syphon- 
cup by virtue of unbalanced atmospheric pressure. 

To make a note that most oils contain glutinous 
matter — sometimes dissolved india-rubber — and that 
the action of syphoning in process of time chokes 
the tubes of the cotton or worsted with refuse uatter. 

Firing. — To describe the general construction of 
the fire-grate and the use of the brick arch. 

To point out the advantages to be obtained by 
using broken bricks, sand, or chalk on the fire-bars 
before making up the fire. 

To explain how a fire requires to be made to be in 
accordance with the method set forth in this work. 

To point out the importance of firing round the 
box and placing the fuel against the heating surface. 

To show the defects of a fire made and maintained 
in the centre of the grate. 

To state the particular mode of firing essential to 
support a high pressure of steam. How many shovel- 
fuls is enough at one firing ? 

To explain why a fire will not clinker in the centre 
when allowed to feed itself from the fuel when put 
on the sides or against the walls of the box. 



198 CERTIFICATES. 

To state where to fire and how to give the maxi- 
mum quantity of coal in shovelfuls that should be put 
on at one firing. 

Locomotive Ailments. — To describe what provisions 
are necessary to be able to surmount any slight 
break-down — spanners, packing, &c. — and the quickest 
way to dismember an engine. 

To observe that one of the best precautions against 
ailments is to keep everything well cottered up, to 
the total exclusion of knock. 

To describe how to pack up a broken spring. 

To state why the bottom centre is the best position 
in which an engine should be placed to uncouple. 

To give a description of various modes of un- 
coupling, of blocking the piston against the back 
cylinder-cover, closing the ports with the valve, or 
pulling the valve back like the piston. 

To state what must be done in the case of the 
regulator losing all control over the steam to the 
cylinders. 

Proposition II. 

Conditions on which a Second-class Certificate might be 
granted, and the Subjects of Examination. 

A candidate for this certificate should, in addition to 
the possession of the qualifications required for a third- 
class engineer, have run the stipulated number of miles 
as a goods and passenger driver. 

The examination for this certificate might be partly 
viva voce and partly by examination papers. 

The candidate should possess some knowledge of the 
locomotive from the time of Stephenson, and also give 



CERTIFICATES. 11)9 

a general description of one or two engines on which 
he has been employed. 

He should be able to describe, in keeping with hi& 
personal experience, some modern improvements intro- 
duced into locomotive practice. 

He should be able to state the general advantages of 
cushioning, clearance, lap, and lead. 

He should be able to give a general explanation of 
the methods adopted for regulating and maintaining in 
efficiency such advantageous elements as lap and lead. 
How is the lead and lap diminished, and what effect 
does it produce as compared with an engine having 
its due amount of lead and lead intact ? 

He should be able to state the general principle of 
combustion. What is oxygen ? 

How is the combustion of coal in a locomotive fire- 
box rendered completely successful ? What is carbon ? 

He should be able to give an opinion as to the value 
of difierent kinds of coal which have come under his 
notice, and distinguish them as bituminous, slightly 
bituminous, non-bituminous or anthracite, and prepared 
to give some idea of the value of each for making steam 
economically. 

He should be able to calculate the result of certain 
tests with a view to form a correct opinion as to which 
was good coal, by registering the weight of water 
evaporated by each pound of coal. 

He should be able to explain that steam, as a gas, is 
subject to the common laws of gaseous fluids. 

He should be conversant with the expansive working 
of steam in the cylin der. 

He should be able to show the pressure of steam in 
the cylinder at any part of the stroke when worked 



200 CERTIFICATES. 

expansively, and also give the approximate and effective 
pressure. 

Proposition III. 

Conditions on which a First-class Certificate might be 
granted, and the Subjects of Examination. 

A candidate for this certificate should, in addition to 
the conditions required for a third and second class 
engineer, have run the stipulated number of miles as a 
goods and passenger driver. 

He should be in a position to give satisfactory proof 
■of his capacity by giving a complete answer to each of 
the questions proposed on page 192. 

This certificate might be granted by examination, 
partly um voce and partly by examination paper. 

Bank and Uniform. 

It is proposed by the author that engine-drivers in 
possession of certificates shall be called " engineers,^* 
for they are, with such a symbol of capacity at their 
command, as much entitled to such rank as engineers 
at sea. 

It is further proposed that a suitable uniform be 
designed to distinguish the grade of " engineers.'^ The 
advantage of this change would be to elevate the position 
of a body of men whose influence on the safe working 
of all railways is no small factor in the public con- 
fidence. 

"With such symbols of competency there would cer- 
tainly be universal expressions of pleasure and satis- 
faction. 



PAET lY 

exami]^atio:n" mattee. 



ARITHMETIC. 

SIGNIFICATION OF SIGNS USED IN CALCULATION 



=: 


signifies Equality- 


as 3 added to 2 


= 5 


+ 




Addition 


„ 4 + 2 


= 6 


— 




Subtraction 


„ 7-2 


= 5 


X 




Multiplication 


„ 6 X 2 


= 12 


• 




Division 


„ 12 -^ 2 


= 6 


• • • • 

e • • • 




Proportion 


„ 2 is to 3 as 4 is to 6 


V 




Square root 


„ ^16 


- 4 


V 




Cube root 


„ V64 


= 4 


32 




3 is to be squared 


„ 3^- 


=: 9 


33 




3 is to be cubed 


» 33 


= 27 


i + 5 X 4 




that 2 and 5 = 7, 


and four times 7 


= 28 



^0^ — b^ — 4_ This reads, 3 squared taken from 5 

squared, and the square root extracted zz 4 

V'lO X 6 
vc = l"o87, reads 10 multiplied by 6 and divided 
by 15 ; the cube root of the quotient » . = 1-687 
mph signifies miles per hour. 

An engine-driver should understand Simple Propor- 
tion, Decimals, &c., &c. 



SIMPLE PROPORTIOK 

When we have three numbers given, this rule teaches 
hoTV to find a fourth number, which may have the same 



202 ARITHMETIC. 

proportion to the third number that the eecond has to 
the first. 

Thus, if the three given numbers be 3, 9, 4, it is 
required to find a fourth number which will have the 
same proportion to 4 that 9 has to 3 ; now the 9 is 3 
times the 3, therefore the required number must be 3 
times the 4, that is 12. 

To express proportions the numbers are put down 
thus 3 : 9 : : 4 : 12, and reads thus 3 is to 9 as 4 is to 
12. 

EuLE WITH Example. — Place them thus' 3 : 9 : : 4 
and multiply the second and third numbers 4 

together, and divide by the first. 3) 36 

12 Ans. 



To 3. 6. 12 find a fourth proportional. 


Answer, 24. 


„ 6. 12. 4 


8. 


., 10. 150. 68 „ „ 


„ 1020. 


„ 68. 1020. 10 „ „ 


„ 150. 



If 4 lbs. of tallow cost 20 pence, what will 16 lbs. 
cost? 

Rule with Example. — In this question there are 
two things mentioned, tallow and money ; the answer 
required is the price, money. 

Put down the money- — 20 pence — for the third term. 
This is always so, that is, the third term is of the same 
kind as the answer required, and is worth remembering. 
If the answer is to be greater than the third term the 
greater is placed second, and if it is to be less it is 
placed first and the less of course second. The question 



ARITHMETIC. 203 

before us requires an answer greater than the third 
term, and is worked out thus — 

4 lbs. : 16 lbs. : : 20 pence 
20 



4) 320 



80 pence = 6s. 8d. Ans. 



If 6s. 8d. will purchase 16 lbs. of tallow, how many 
pounds will Is. 8d. buy ? Here the answer is to be less 
than the third term, and it is pounds of tallow and not 
money ; therefore observe, 



pence. 

80 : 


pence. 

20 : 

16 


lbs. 

;: 16 




120 

20 




80) 


320 




4 lbs. 


Add. 



If a locomotive engine takes 150 minutes to perform 
100 miles, what is the speed or miles per hour? 

Note. — The answer is miles, and there are 60 minutea 
in an hour ; then — 



Min. Min. Miles. 

150 : 60 :: loo 

100 



150)6000 

40 miles per hour. 

At 40 miles per hour, what mile-post will an engine 
reach in 150 minutes ? 

Note. — The answer is to be greater than the third 
term. 



204 



ARITHMETIC. 

Min. Min. Miles. 

60 : 160 :: 40 

40 



60)6000 



100th mile post. 



If the above engine departed from Euston Station 
at 12 o'clock, what will be the exact time on its pass- 
ing the 75th mile-post, speed 40 miles per hour ? 



Miles. Miles. Min. 

100 : 75 :: 150 

loO 



3750 
75 



100) 11250 (112-5 = 1 hour 52^ min., or 
100 7j min. to 2 o'clock. 

125 
100 



250 
200 

500 

500 



DECIMALS. 

By decimals are meant tenths. Decimal arithmetic 
is the simplest possible method of working calculations, 
and a few examples are sufficient to enable any driver 
or fireman to become, for the remainder of his term, a 
decimal arithmetician. 

It is worthy of special attention that, in decimals, 
the dot performs a very important part : separating 
integers from cyphers, or the fractional parts from a 
whole. Decimals, contrary to vulgar fractions, are 



ARITHMETIC. ' 205 

written in one line like integers ; and thej are, in all 
respects, worked out in a ]3lane- sailing way. 

Decimals fractionals are written thus, . . . -25 : '5: '75 : 
Their equivalents in vulgar fractions are vmtten • i 2" f 

The value of a decimal is altered by placing ciphers 
to the left, but not by placing ciphers to the right. 

Thus -05 •= xfo ; and, by placing a cipher to the left, 
the decimal becomes '005, or i-oVo* which is ten times 
less than i-^-g-. 

ADDITION OF DECIMALS. 
Add 4-15; -002; -3 :— 

4-15 
•002 
•3 



4-4o2 
Observe the position of the dot. 

SUBTRACTION OF DECBIALS. 

E.ULE. — If the number of decimal places be not the 
same in all the fractions, annex so many ciphers to the 
right hand as will render it so. We do not alter the 
value of the fractions so supplied, but they are reduced 
to the same denominator. 

Subtract 106-125 from 125-5. 

125-O00 
106-125 



19-375 Ans. 19f 



MULTIPLICATION OF DECIMALS. 

Rule. — Arrange the numbers as if they were in- 
tegers. 



206 ARITHMETIC. 

Multiply 148-74 by 2-67. 

148-74 ) Observe 4 decimal 
2-67 j figures used. 

104118 

»y244 
29748 



397-13 58 (Four decimals cut off.) 

Note. — Count the number of decimals in both the 
multiplicand and the multiplier, and point off as many 
figures from the right hand of the product. 

Multiply -02 by -045. 

•02 
•045 



•00090 



In counting the number of decimals in the multipli- 
cand and multiplier to point off in the product, if there 
are not sufficient figures in the product, place ciphers to 
the left, and prefix the dot as above. 

DIVISION OF DECIMALS. 

Rule. — Divide as in ^hole numbers, and mark off 
in the quotient as many decimal places as the dividend 
has more than the divisor. 

Divide 72-125 by 6-25. 

Dvsr. Dividnd. Quot. 
6-25)72-r250(ll-54 



62 5 


9 62 
6 25 


3 375 
3 125 


2500 
2500 

• • • • 



The cipher in the dividend is brought in and shown 



ARITHMETIC. 



207 



above as making the number of decimals in the 
dividend equal to the number in the divisor and quo- 
tient together. 

EEDUCTIOK 

To reduce a Vulgar Fraction to a Decimal. 
Rule. — Divide the numerator by the denominator, 
annexing as many ciphers to the numerator as may be 
necessary. Point off as many decimal places in the quo- 
tient as there are ciphers annexed to the numerator. 

E-educe i to a decimal. 

4)100 Observe 2 cipliers added. 

•25 Ans. „ 2 decimals cut off. 

Reduce f to a decimal. 

4)300 
•75 Ans. 
Reduce J to a decimal. 

, _A A A 

8)7000 



•875 



The annexed table, of 
fractional parts of an inch, 

Vulgar Fraction. Decimal Equivalent. 

it -03125 

1^^ -0625 

■A -09375 

i -125 

\ -h -15625 

^ '1875 

\ A -21875 

\ -25 

J^ -28125 

}i^ -3125 

\ -h -34375 

I 375 

I ^ -40625 

\ -4375 

h -46875 

•5 



decimal equivalents of the 
is calculated as above. 

Vulgar Fraction. Decimal Equivalent. 



1 _1_ 

"^ 32 

1 _1_ 

2 16 

1 _3_ 

2 32 



8 32 
3 _X. 
F 16 

8 32" 

3. 

4 

3 _1_ 

4 32 

^ 1 
4 16 

Sl -3- 
4 32 

I 

¥ 32 

\ T6 
7 _3_ 
¥ 3 2 

1 



•53125 

•5625 

•59375 

•625 

•65625 

•6875 

-71875 

•75 

•7812 

•8125 

-84375 

•875 

•90625 

•9375 

-96875* 

rooo 



Eeada — Decimal nine six eight seven five. 



208 ARITHMETia 

To reduce Money, 8^'c. 

Rule. — Divide by as many of the lower denomina- 
tion as make one of the higher, annexing ciphers at 
will. If there be several denominations, proceed in the 
same manner with each, beginning with the lowest 
denominator. 

Reduce 12s. 8^g?. to the decimal of a pound sterling. 

(4 farthings r=z 1 penny 4)100 
(12 pence = 1 shiUing 12)8-2500 



(20 shillings — £1 20)12-68756 

•634375 = decimal value of 12s. ?>^d. 

To re-value this decimal, multiply it by the various 
fractional denominations of the whole number, cutting 
off from the right hand of each product, for decimals, 
a number of figures equal to the number of decimals 
given, then multiply the remainder by the next lower 
denomination, and proceed until the lowest is reached. 



•634375 
20 


6 decimals. 


12-687500 
12 


6 decimals cut off. 


8-250000 
4 


- •» w 


1-000000 


» t 



Ans. 12s. ^\d. 

To find the Value of a Decimal, 

Rule. — Multiply the decimal by the number of the 
next lower denomination which is equal to one of its 
present denomination. Cut off as many places as there 
are places in the multiplicand. 



ARITHMETIC. 209 



Find the value of '75 foot. 

•75 
12 



9-00 Ans. 9 iiicho*^ 



Find the value of -3875 of a £. 



•3875 
20 

7-7500 
12 

9-0000 Ans. 78. 91. 



Find the value of '375 ton. 

•375 
20 



7-600 
4 

2-000 Ans. 7 cwt. 2 qrs, 



INVOLUTION. 

When a number is multiplied by itself, the product 
is called a power, and the number multiplied is called 
the root. 

Thus 2 X 2 := 4. Here 4 is the square or second 
power of the root 2. Again, 2 X 2 X 2==z8. Here 
8 is the third power of 2. 

EYOLUTION. 

Evolution is the method of finding the root of a 
number. 

To extract the square root of any given number is to 

p 



210 ARITHMETIC. 

find a number whicli, when multiplied by itself, will 
produce the given number. 

Extract the square root of 55225. 

Rule with Example. — Divide the given number 
into periods, that is, set a dot over the unit and right- 
hand figure, and then over every alternate figure 
towards the left. Find the square root (2) of the first 
period (5), and place it in the quotient. Subtract the 
square of it (4) from the first period (5), and to the 
remainder annex the next period (52) for a dividend. 
Double 2, the root alreadv found for a divisor, and 
place it (4) to the left of the dividend, looking upon it 
as 40 and not 4. After finding that this divisor (40) 
will go 3 times in the dividend (152), place the figure 
representing the number of times in the quotient, and 
also in the divisor, making the latter 43 ; then multiply 
the 43 by 3, and subtract the product. Bring down 
another period (25). 

In forming the second divisor, 465, double the 
last figure (3) in the first di^^isor, and look upon it 
as 460. After finding that this divisor (460) will 
go 5 times in the dividend, place the 5 in the quotient 
and divisor, making the latter 465 ; then multiply the 
465 by the 5 just placed in the quotient, and sub- 
tract the product, which leaves nothing ; 235 being 
the answer, 

65225(235 
4 



43)152 
129 

i<ob) 2325 
2325 



ARITHMETIC. 21] 

What is the square root of 177241 ? 

177241(421 
16 



82) 172 
164 



841) 841 
841 



EXTRACTION OF THE THIRD OR CUBE ROOT. 

To extract the cube root of any given number is to 
find a number which, when multiplied twice by itself, 
will produce the given number. 

Rule and Example. — Make a dot over every third 
figure, beginning at the unit or right-hand figure point 
to the left with whole numbers and towards the right 
in decimals. 

What is the cube root of 884736 ? Place the root (9) 
of the first period (884) in the quotient, on the right, 
and its cube (729) under the first period (884). Sub- 
tract, and to the remainder (155) bring down the next 
period of three figures (736). Multiply the square of 
the quotient (9x9 = 81) by 300 for a divisor. Find 
how often it is contained in the dividend, and put the 
number (6) in the quotient. Multiply the divisor (24300) 
by this number (6). Add to the product the amount 
of all the figures in the quotient (9), multiplied by 30 
— except the last (6) — and the product by the square 
of the last. 

To these figures add the cube of the last figure in the 
quotient, and subtract the sum of the whole from the 
dividend : thus, — 



212 ARITHMETIC. 

V^884736 (96 Ans. 
729 



9X9X 300 = 24300)155736* 



145800 = divisor X 6 
9720 = 9 X 30 X 6' 
216 cube of 6 



165736* see figs, in dividend above. 



Another way: — 

What is the cube root of 10648 ? 

>yi0648(22 
8 



2X2X3 = 12)2648- 

Here, after squaring the root of the first period, we 
multiply it by 3 = 12, and, rejecting the units and 
tens, we find the divisor is contained twice in the divi- 
dend, which is put in the quotient, making 22, the cube 
root of 10648. 

Proof 22 

22 

44 

44 

484 square of 22 

22 

968 
968 



10648 cube of 22 



MENSUEATION OF SUPERFICIES. 

This teaches how to find the area of any plane figure 
-that is, the surface without any regard to thickness. 
To find the area of a square, multiply the side by 



ARITHMETIC. 



213 



itself, A B by B c. For example, the length of each 
side IS 12 inches ; then, — 



12 inclies. 



B 






12 

12 

144 square inches. 



C 



To find the area of a rectangle, multiply the length 
by the breadth. Required the area of a locomotive fire- 
grate 5 feet 6 inches long and 3 feet 6 inches wide. 



By Decimaia. 
35 

275 

165 



19 25 Ans. 19 J square feet 

To find the area of a triangle, multiply the base by 
the perpendicular height, and half the product is the 
area. Required the area of a triangle, of which the base 
ifi 15'4 inches, and the perpendicular 7 '8 inches : — 

15-4 

7-8 

1232 
1078 



2)12012 

60-06 Ans. 60-06 square inches. 



214 ARITHMETin 

What is the circumference of a 7 -feet driving'- 
wheel ? 

Miiltiply 3-1416 by 84, or by 7 and by 12 for feet 
and inches. 

3-1416 
7 



29-9912 feet 
12 



263-8944 inches 



What is the diameter of a driving-wheel of which 
the circumference is 263*8944 inches ? 
Multiply the circumference by '31831. 



263-8944 
-31831 

2638944 
79i6832 
21111532 
2638944 
7916832 

84-000226464 inches. 



The Lady of the Lake, North- Western Railway, has 
192 tubes, each 10 feet 9 inches long, IJ inches external 
diameter ; required their total heating surface in square 
feet. 



1-875 diameter of each tube, 
3-1416 



11-250 

1875 
7500 
1875 
6625 



5'8905Oee^ circum. of each tube in inches, 



ARITHMETIC. 215 

5-8905 

129 length in inches. 



630145 
117810 

68905 



eq. inches in 1 sq. foot 144 ) 759-8746 ( 6'2769 sq. feet in each tube 

720 



398 

288 



1107 
1008 

994 
864 



1305 
1296 



9 



6*2769 square feet in each tube. 
192 total number of tubes. 



105638 
474921 
52769 

1013.1648 



Total beating surface of the tubes, 1,013 square feet. 
Wbat is tbe area of an 18-incb piston-bead ? 
Multiply tbe diameter in incbes by itself and by -785 J-, 

18 
18 



144 

18 



324 

•7854 

1296 
1620 
2592 
2268 



254,4696 area. Ans. 254 ^-^ square inchea. 



216 A-RITHMETIC. 

Or thus — 

18 X 18 X •7854 = 2o4-469. 

Or thus — 

IS^ X •78o4 = 2o4-469. 

The circumference of a 7-feet driving-wheel being 
263*8944 inches, find the diameter. 

3-1416\263-8944(84 inches. Ans. 
251328 



125664 
125664 



Fin^ the area of a circle whose diameter is 17 inches 
say, a steam- cylinder. 



17 
17 



119 

17 

289 
•7854 



1156 
1445 
2312 
2023 



226-9806 area. Ans.226-98 square incbf! 



ARITHMETIC. 



217 



DIAGRAM OF ENGINE-EUNNING. 



Name dept. 
Istday of Sta-.IO.O a.m. 
tion. 



2nd „ 



3rd „ 



4th 



fitli „ 



» 



9.0 p.m. 
arr. 

dept. 
11.0 a.m. 



11.0 a.m. 
arr. 

dept. 
1.0 p.m. 



12.30 a.m. 
arr. 

dept. 
5.30 p.m. 



11.16 a.m. 
arr. 



6th „ 1 Bhed day 



arr. 
2.0 p.m. 

5.0 p.m. 
dept. 

arr. 
3,0 p.m. 



Name I 

of Sta-' llilcs. 
tion. 

'=:320 



:=-. KO 



7.0 a.m. 
dept. 



arr. 
6.0 p.m. 



8.40 p.m. 
dept. 



arr. 
9.15 p.m. 



>> 



=: 160 



= 320 



= 320 



7.15 a.m 
dept. 

Total miles 



1280 



218 



ARITHMETIC. 



Required the coal consumption per mile as per 
annexed Driver's Monthly Stores Account. 



1 

1 1876. 


Coal. 


Miles. 


Track No. 


1876. 


Coal. 


Miles. 


Track No. 


Aug. 1 


60cwt. 


320 


1020 


Aug. 18 


35cwt. 


150 


1460 


„ 2 


65 „ 


330 


830 


„ 19 


60 „ 


290 


1521 




4 


65 „ 


320 


646 


„ 21 


60 „ 


320 


426 


J 


6 


40 „ 


180 


1124 


„ 22 


50 „ 


202 


1121 




8 


70 „ 


302 


758 


„ 23 


65 „ 


303 


896 


•] 


10 


40 „ 


195 


250 


„ 25 


60 „ 


320 


520 




, 11 


65 „ 


320 


84 


„ 26 


65 „ 


320 


1143 




13 


35 „ 


168 


1014 


„ 29 


65 „ 


320 


94 




, 15 


70 „ 


320 


962 


„ 30 


40 ., 


168 


862 


« 17 


65 „ 


280 


652 


„ 31 


25 „ 


100 


1002 













1100 cwts of coal. 
112 



2200 
1100 
1100 



Miles. 

6228)123200(23dr.5 
10456 



18640 
15684 

29560 
26140 



34200 
31368 

28320 
26140 

2180 



Ans. 23-565 lbs. per inili. 



ARITHMETIC. 219 

If a locomotive engineraan is allowed 14 lbs. per mile 
for his engine, and 1| lbs. per mile for each vehicle, 
with 18 vehicles and engine, for 50 miles ; required the 
total consumption. 



14 lbs. per mile for Engine. 
50 miles 

700 lbs. of coal for 50 miles, Engine. 



13 X H = 27 lbs. per mile for Train. 
50 miles 

] 350 lbs. of coal for 50 miles, Train. 



700 Engine. 
1350 Train. 



2050 lbs. of coal for oO miles, Engine and Train. 



Lbs. 
112)2050- (18- 3035 
112 4 


•930 1-2140 
896 


•340 
336 


••400 
336 


•640 


•80 


Ans 18^ cvH. 



If an engine, in a run of 50 miles, consumes 12 cwt 



220 ARITHMETIC. 

of coal, and evaporates 1,250 gallons of water, required 
the weight of water evaporated per lb. of coal. 
A gallon of water equals 10 lbs. 



1250 gallons of water. 
10 weiglit of one gallon. 

12500 total weiglit of water in Ibo. 



12 cwt 
112 lbs, 


. of coal. 
. in one cwt. 


of coal 


24 
12 

12 






1344 lbs. 


of coal in 12 cwt. 


Lbs. 
of 

Coal. 
1344) 


Weight 

of 
Water. 
12500(9-300 
12096 






..4040 
4032 






800 





Ans. 9 iT) lbs. of water evaporated by 1 lb. of coal. 

What number of turns will a 7-feet driving-wheel 
make in a mile ? 

Rule. — Divide 1,680 by the diameter. 

7)1680 
240 Ans. 



ARITHMETIC. 



221 



What number of turns or revolutions will a 7- feet 
dri vino- wheel make per minute, at 40 miles per 



Lour 



Rule. — Multiply the speed in miles per hour by 28, 
and divide by the diameter of the driving-wheel. 



40 

28 

320 

80 

7 feet) 11 20 

160 revolutions per minute. 



Revolutions of Driving-wheels per Mile. 



Diameter of VV. 


^eel. 


Eevolutions Mile 


Inches. 






42 




480-4 


43 




469 


46 




439 


48 




420 


50 




403-5 


54 




373-5 


55 




367 


60 




336 


62 




325-4 


63 




320 


6Q 




306 


72 


• • 


280 


78 


• / 


254-6 


81 




249 


84 


. 


240 



What is the speed of the piston of an engine having 
24 inches of stroke, and 7-feet drivers, at a speed of 40 
miles per hour ? 

Rule. — Multiply the speed in miles per hour by 28, 
divide by the diameter of the driving-wheel, and mul- 
tiply the product by 4. 



222 ARITHMETIC. 

40 

28 

320 

80 



7)1120(160 rev. per minute. 

... 4 ft. of piston for 1 rev. of driv. wheei, 

640 ft. speed of piston per minute. 
Or thus— 40 X28-i-7 = 160X4 — 640. 

The speed of a train is 60 miles per hour, what is 
fche speed in feet per second ? 

Rule. — Multiply the speed by 22 and divide by 1 5, 
thus : — 

60 

22 

120 
120 



15)1320(88 feet per second.- Ans. 
120 



•120 
120 



^ ,, 60 X 22 

Or tnus — - — r^ — - =88 feet, 
lo 



The cylinders of a locomotive are 17 inches in 
diameter, and 24 inches in stroke; pistons making 150 
strokes per minute, effective mean pressure 100 lbs. per 
equare inch. What is the horse- power ? 



ARITHMETIC. 
17 

17 

119 
17 

289 
•7854 

1156 
1445 
2312 
2023 

226-9806 area of 1 cyliuder 
2 



22ii 



453-9612 „ 2 cylindeis 
100 pressure 



45396-1200 

4 ft. = 2 complete fitroke.1 



181584-4800 
150 

90792240000 
1815844800 



S3000)27237672-0000(825-S8i 
264000 



83767 
66000 

177672 
165000 

126720 
99000 

277200 
264000 

132000 

132000 Ans. 825 horse-power. 



Find the horse-power of a locomotive engine to 
draw a train of 100 tons up an incline of 1 in 80, at 



221 ARITHMETIC. 

the rate of 20 miles per hour, allowing 8 lbs. per ton 
for friction. 

Distance train moves per minute . = 20 X 5280 =: 1760 feet. 

60 
Eesistance d\ie to friction . . z= 100 X 8 ^ 800 Its. 
Work of friction per minute. . = 1760 X 800 = 1408000 ft. lbs. 
„ „ „ hour . . = 1760 X 800 X 60 = 84480000 

Rise of incline in a mile . . z=: — ~ =66 feet. 

80 

Work due to gravity in a mile . = 100 X 2240 X 66 = 14790600 

„ „ 20 miles . 14790600 X 20 = 295812000 

Total work of gravity and friction in an hour. 
Gravity 295812000 
Friction 84480000 



380292000 



Horse-power per hour = 33000 X 60 = 1980000 foot pounds. 

1980000)380292000(192 horse-power. 
1980000 



18229200 
17820000 

••4092000 
3960000 

•32000 



To find the Heating Surface of a Fire-hox. 

Rule.— Length multiplied by the breadth ; added to 
twice the breadth, multiplied by the height ; added to 
twice the length, multiplied by the height ; from 
which subtract the sectional area of the tubes and the 
inside surface of the fire-hole door. 

What is the heating surface of a fire-box 4 feet 
9 inches high, 4 feet long, and 3 feet 3 inches broad ? 
With an oval fire-hole 2 feet by 1. The boiler contains 
180 tubes, 2 inches in diameter. 



ARITHMETIC. '^25 

ft. in. tt. in. ft. in. ft. in. ft. in. ft. in. 

(40X3 3 + 2(4 X 4 9) + 2 (3 3 X 4 9 ) 

sq. ft. sq. ft. sq. ft. in. sq. ft. in. 

13 + 36 ^30 126 = 79 126 

sq. ft. in. 

1 82 (fire-hole door) \ *; 7n 

3 132) section area of tubes) j * * * . _ o 7U 



Heating surface of fire-box .... 74 56 



What is tlie area of a safety-valve 2 J inclies diame- 
ter? 

2-52 X -7854 = 4-9 

2-5 
2-5 

125 

50 

625 

•7854 



2500 
3125 
6000 
4375 



4-9 — say 4*9 square mches. 

4-9087 
60 



74-59)294-o220(3-9485 
223 77 



70752 
67131 



36210 
29836 

63740 

69672 



40680 
37295 

3395 



Ans. Distance from end of lever nearly 4 inches.. 

Q 



226 ARITHMETIC. 

Required, the weiglit to be placed on tlie end of a 
safety-valve lever 17 J inches long, 3 J inches from ful- 
crum to valve ; valve 2 J inches diameter, pressure in 
the boiler required 80 lbs. per square inch, weight of 
valve and lever 20^ lbs. 

17j -r 3| = 5, leverage. 

25 
25 

125 

50 

625 

•7854 



2500 
3125 
6000 
4375 

4-908750 area of valye. 
80 pressure. 



392,700060- 
20-25 weiglit of lever and vaive. 



Leverage 5)372-45 
74-59 



Ans. 74J Its. 

Particulars as in last case : required, the distance 
from the end of the lever to which the weight must be 
moved to effect a pressure of 60 lbs. per square inch. 

What is the leverage of a safety-valve lever 17| 

inches total len»gth, with a distance of 3j inches Trora 

fulcrum to valve ? 

3 -5) 17 -5 (5 leverage 
175 



ARITHMETIC. 227 

Required, the direct weight to be placed on the top 
of a safety-valve 2 J inches diameter, to allow steam to 
escape at 80 lbs. per square inch. 

2-52 X -7854 = 4-9087 X 80 = 392-7000 
2-5 

125 

50 

625 
.7854 



2500 
3125 
6000 
4375 

4-908750 
80 

112)392,700000(3-5062 cwts. 
336 4 



•567 2-0248 qrs. 

660 4 X 7 = 28 



•700 -0992 

672 7 



•280 0-6944 lb. 

224 8 X 2 = 16 



•56 5-5552 
— - 2 



11-1104 oz. 



Ans. 3 cwt. 2 qrs. Its. 11 ozs., including the weight of valva 



228 



CONSUMPTION OF FUEL. 



The Consumption of Fuel in lbs. per Mile for a 



«5 i 

1— I 


at 
% 

o 

CI 




02 



i 

10 


ai 
1 

ft 

37 


% 

■rH 
1 — 1 



Ph 
15 




p. 


% 

•t-i 

1— t 


P. 
m 


03 


d 
P< 

3 


oj 



•iH 


■i-t 

P< 

03 
3 


03 

is 



1— t 


6 
ft 

m 


03 

a 

1—! 


i-H 

•r-< 

ft 


03 

B 

s 
Ph 


q5 

f-H 

(D 
ft 
03 

,^ 
h-1 


03 


r— 4 

ft 

a; 
3 


30 5 


18| 


56 


20 


741 




















35 


5 


16 


10 


32 


15 


48 


20 


64 


25 


80 






















40 


5 


13 


10 


28 


15 


42 


20 


56 


25 


70 






















45 


10 


25 


15 


37 


20 


42| 


25 


62 


30 


74f 






















50 1 


10 


22| 


15 


33| 


20 


46 


25 


56 


30 


67 


36 


78 


















55 


10 


201 


15 


30| 


20 


40| 


25 


51 


30 


61 


35 


71| 


















60 


10 


18| 


15 


28 


20 


37 


25 


461 


30 


56 


35 


65 


40 


74f 














65 


10 


17 


15 


26 


20 


34^ 


25 


43 


30 


52 


35 


601 


40 


69 


45 


77f 










70 


10 


16 


15 


24 


20 


32 


25 


40 


30 


48 


35 


56 


40 


64 


45 


72 










75 


10 


15 


15 


22J 


20 


30 


25 


371 


30 


45 


35 


52^ 


40 


60 


45 


671 


50 


75 






80 


10 


14 


15 


21 


20 


28 


25 


35 


30 


42 


35 


49 


40 


56 


45 


63 


50 


70 






85 


15 


12f 


20 


26| 


25 


33 


30 


391 


35 


46 


40 


52f 


45 


591 


50 


66 


55 


72^ 






90 


15 


181 


20 


25 


25 


31 


30 


37 


35 


431 


40 


491 


45 


56 


50 


62 


55 


68| 


60 


74^ 


95 


15 


17| 


20 


23f 


25 


29| 


30 


351 


35 


411 


40 


47 


45 


53 


50 


59 


55 


65 


60 


71 


100 


15 


16f 


20 


22| 


25 


28 


30 


33| 


35 


89 


40 


45 


45 


50 


50 


56 


55 


611 


60 


67 


105 


15 


16 


20 


21| 


25 


26f 


30 


32 


35 


371 


40 


42| 


45 


48 


50 


531 


55 


5Sf 


60 


64 


110 


15 


151 


20 


20| 


25 


25| 


30 


30f 


35 35f 


40 


40| 


45 


45f 


50 


51 


55 


56 


60 


61 


115 


15 


141 


20 


191 


25 


24 


30 


291 


35 341 


40 


381 


45 


431 


50 


481 


55 


531 


60 


58| 


120 


20 


llf 


25 


23| 


30 


28 


35 


32| 


40 


371 


45 


42 


50 


461 


55 


51J 


60 56 


65 


60| 


125 


20 


18 


25 


22| 


30 


27 


35 


31| 


40 


36 


45 


40| 


50 


45 


55 


491 


60 '54 


65 


55i 


130 


20 


171 


25 


21i 


30 


26 


35 


30 


40 


34| 


45 


39 


50 


43 


55 


471 


60 611 


65 


56 


135 


20 


161 


25 


20^ 


30 


24| 


35 


29 


40 


33 


45 


371 


50 


411 


55 


451 


60 


49f 


65 


535 


140 


20 


16 


25 


20 


30 


24 


35 


28 


40 


32 


45 


36 


50 


40 


55 


44 


60 


48 


65 


52 


145 


'20 


15i 


25 


19i 


30 


23 


35 


27 


40 


30| 


45 


34f 


50 


381 


55 


421 


60 


461 


65 


50 


150 


25 


18f 


30 


22| 


35 


26 


40 


29| 


45 33| 


50 


371 


55 


41 


60 


45 


65 


481 


70 


m\ 


155 25 


18 


30 


21f 


35 


251 


40 


2Sf 


45 321 


50 


361 


55 


39f 


60 


43^ 


65 


47 


70 


50f 


160 25 


in 


30 


21 


35 


24| 


40 


28 


45 311 


50 


35 


55 


3S| 


60 


42 


65 ' 451 


70 


49 


165 25 


17 


30 


20 


35 


23f 


40 


27 


45 301 


50 


34 


55 


371 


60 


40f 


65 44 


70 


47^ 


170 


25 


161 


30 


20 


35 


23 


40 


261 


45 29| 


50 


33 


55 


361 


60 391 


65 43 


70 


46 


175 


25 


16 


30 


19 


35 


22| 


40 


251 


45 283 


50 


32 


55 


351 


60 ' 381 


65 


411-70 


44| 


180 30 


m 


35 


013 

1 * 


40 


'25 


45 


28 


50 31 


55 


341 


60 


371 


65 401 


70 


431 j 75 


46f 


185 30 


13 


35 


21 


40 


1241 


45 


271 


50 301 


55 


331 


60 


361 


65 391 


70 


421 1 75 


451 


190 30 


m 


35 


201 


40 


!23i 


45 


2G1 


50 291 


55 


321 


60 


351 


65 ' 381 


70 


411*75 


441 


195 30 


17 


35 


20 


40 


23 


45 


25f 


50 2Sf 


55 


311 


60 


341 


65 371 


70 


401 '75 


43 


200 30 


161 


35 


191 


40 


22| 


45 


251 


50 28 


55 


30| 


60 


331 


65 361 


70 , 39 75 


42 



CONSUMPTION OF FUEL 



229 



given number of cwts. consumed in a given distance. 



00 


« 


QQ 


O 


QQ 


-M 


m 


-•-' 


r;:^ 




is 


M 


If 


kH 


fi 


o 


r^ 


o 


f^ 


c;) 


• IH 


a> 


.g 


53 

i-4 


.a 


f— 1 










<u 


in 


<i> 


OQ 


<u 


s 


." 


^ 


,Q 





[i* 


Hi 


kH J 


vj 


pq 



65 72| 
65 ; 691 
65*66 
65 63| 
70 65i 



70 
70 
70 
70 
70 
75 
75 
75 



63 

60i 

58 

56 

54 

56 

54i 

52^ 



75 51 
75 1 49J 
75:48 
80 49| 

80 481 
80 47 
80 46 
80 '45 



70 
70 
70 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
75 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
85 
85 
85 
85 
85 



741 

7li 

G8 

70 

G7i- 

641 

621 

60 

571 

59f 

57f 

56 

54| 

52f 

511 

o2| 

511 

50 

49 

47| 



75 

80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
80 
85 
85 
85 
85 
85 
85 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 



n3 



o 

m 

3 



73 

74f 

711 

69 

661 

64 

61f 

63t 

611 

591 

57f 

56 

541 

56 

541 

53 

5H 
501 



^ to 



o 

ft 



761 
731 



701 
68 



uo>3 

67| 

65 

63 

61 

591 

57^ 

59 

57§ '100 

56 jlOO 

54| 100 

53J '100 



90 
90 
90 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
100 



o 

ft 

1-1 



741 

72 

691 

71 



661 



U_2 

60f 

62 

601 

59 

571 

56 






ft 



1^ 



95 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
105 
105 
105 
105 
105 



731 

721 

70 

67 

66f 

64 

651 

631 

6-2 

601 

5SJ 



fM 



105 
105 
105 
105 
110 
110 
110 
110 
110 



« 
ft 

1-1 



71 

69| 

671 

681 

661 

64f 

63 

611 



O 



110 

no 
no 

115 
115 
115 
115 
116 



ft 

a; 

1-1 



<u 
ft 

ZD 



74* 
72| 
70i 



Ui'2 

67| 

66 

641 



ft 









ft 

in 



U5 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 



741 

721 

70| 

69 

67 



125 
125 
125 
125 70 



75§ 
74 



71| 



130 76^ 
130! 741 
130 72| 



230 QUALITY OF IRON. 



TO TEST THE QUALITY OF IRON 

If the fracture gives long silky fibres, of leaden- 
grey hue, fibres cohering and twisting together before 
breaking, the iron may be considered a tough, soft 
iron. 

A medium even grain, mixed with fibres — a good 
sign. 

A short blackish fibre indicates badly refined iron. 

A very fine grain denotes a hard steely iron, apt to 
be cold-short, hard to work with a file. Coarse grain, 
with brilliant crystallized fracture, yellow or brown 
spots, denotes a brittle iron, cold-short, working easily ; 
when heated, welds easily. 

Cracks on the edges of bars, sign of hot-short iron. 

Good iron is readily heated, soft under the hammer, 
throws out but few sparks. 

Iron, with heating, if exposed to air, will oxidize ; 
when at white heat, if in contact with coal, will car- 
bonize, or become steely. 

To restore burnt iron — give a smart heat, protected 
from the air, if injured by cold hammering ; anneal 
slowly and moderately, if hard or steely ; give one or 
more smart heats to extract the carbon. 



FORCE OF THE WIND. 



231 





FORCE OF THE WllSJ). 


Miles 

per 

Hour. 


Feet per 
Minute. 


Feet per 
Second. 


• 

Force in lbs. 

per Square 

Foot. 


Description. 


1 
2 
3 

4 
5 

10 
15 

20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
60 
70 
80 
100 


1 

88 
176 

264 

352 

440 

880 
1-320 
1-760 
2-200 
2-640 
3-080 
3-520 
3-960 
4-400 
5-280 
6-160 
7-040 
.8-800 


1-47 
2^93 
4-4 
5-87 
7-33 
14-67 
22 
29-3 
36-6 
44- 
51-3 
58-6 
66^ 
73-3 
88-0 
1027 
117-3 
146-6 


•005 

•020 

•044 

•079 

0-123 

0-492 

1-107 

1-970 

3-067 

4-429 

6-027 

7-870 

9-900 

12-304 

17-733 

24153 

31-490 

49-200 


Hardly perceptible. 
[ Just perceptible. 

[ Gentle breeze. 

> Pleasant breeze. 

i Brisk gale. 

1 Higb wind. 

[ Yery bigb wind. 

Storm. 
i Great storm. 

i Hurricane. 




KNOTS. 

A Common Bend. — It is formed by 
passing the end of a rope througli the 
bight of another rope, then round both 
parts of a rope and down through its ^^^-^^'ietd.'''^''" 
own bight. 

Figure of Eight Knot. — Take the end 
of the rope round the standing part, 
under its own part and through the 
lower bight. 

Timber Sitch, — It is made by taking 
the end of a rope round a spar, passing 
it under and over the standing part, 
and then passing several turns round 
its own part 




Fig. 15.— Figure of 
Eight Knot 




Fig. 16.— Timber 
Hitch. 



232 



KNOTS. 




Fig. 17.— A Fisher- 
man's Bend. 





Fig. 19.— Over- 
hand Knot. 



FisJierman^s Bend. — With the end of 
a rope take two turns round, then form a 
half hitch round the standing part, and 
under the turns, and another half hitch 
round the sanding part. 

To make Ttvo Half-Hitches. — Pass the 
end of the rope round the standing part, 
and bring it up through the bight — this 
^^^'^HitSes."^^^" ^s 0^^ half-hitch ; two of these, one above 
the other, constitute two half-hitches. 

Overhand Knot. — This is made bv 
passing the end of the rope over the 
standing part and through the bight. 

Rolling Bend. — It is something similar 

to a fisherman's bend. It is two round 

turns round a spar, two half-hitches 

around the standing part, and the ends 

stopped back. 

To make a Boidine Knot. — Take the end of the 

rope in your right hand, and the standing part in 

your left ; lay the end over the standing part, then 

with your left hand turn the bight of the standing 

part over the end part ; then lead the 
end through the standing part above, 
and stick it down through the cuckold's 
Fig. 2i.-A^^e i^sck formed on the standing part, and 
Knot. -^ ^'^ appear as the sketch. 

A Reef Knot. — First make an 
overhanded knot, supposing it to 
be round a yard ; then bring 
the end being to you over the 
Fig. 22.-SquareorEeef Knot, left hand, and through the bight 




Fig. 20.— EolliE.? 
Bend. 






KNOTS. 233 

liaul both ends taut. This knot is used chiefly for 
joining the ends of ropes or lines together. 

A Short Splice. — A short splice is made by un- 
laying the ends of two ropes, or the two ends of one 
rope, to a sufficient length, then crutch them together 
as per adjoining sketch ; draw them close and push the 

strands of one under the strands 
of the other, the same as the 
eye-splice. This splice is used 
for block-straps, slings, &c. If 
the ends are to be served over, 
thev are but once stuck throug-h : 

Fig. 23.-Short SpUce. •« " ^ ^i x i ^ • i 

it not, they are stuck twice and 
cross-whipped across the strands, so as to make them 
more secure. When the ends are to be served, take a 
few of the underneath yarns, enough to fill up the lay 
of the rope for worming, then scrape or trim the out- 
aide ends, and marl them down ready for serving.. 




PART y. 

REGULATION'S FOE ENGmEMEl^ AISTD 

FIEEMEI^. 



CODE OF SIGNALS. 

As tlie Public Safety is the first care of every officer 
and servant of a Railway Company, and is chiefly de- 
pendent upon the proper use and observance of the 
Signals, all persons employed are particularly required 
to make themselves /«m^7/«r with this code. 
The Signals in regular use are — 

Semaphores ) , ^ 

Flags } *^ -^''^- 

Lamps hy Night, 

Also, Percussion and Personal Signals. 

Flags and Lamps are distinguished by Colours, as 
follows : — 

RED is a Signal oi Danger — Stop. 
GREEN — Caution — Proceed Slowly 
WHITE— All right— Go on. 



REGULATIONS. 



235 



HAND SIGIN'ALS. 

Men required to give Hand Sig- 
nals are provided with Bed, Green, 
and White Flags, and a Signal Lamp, 
with Red, Green, and White Glasses, 
and with Fog Signals ; but in any- 
emergency, when not provided with 
those means of signalling, the follow- 
ing are adopted, namely, — 

The All Right Signal is shown 
by extending the arm horizontally, so 
as to be distinctly seen by the Engine- 
driver, thus — (Fig. 24). 




Fig. 2*. 




The Caution Signal, to Proceed 
Slowly, is shown by one arm held 
straight up, thus — (Fig. 25). 



Fig. 25. 

The Stop Signal is shown by 
holding both arms straight up, thus, 
or by waving any object with vio- 
lence — (Fig. 26). 




Fig. 26, 



236 



REGULATIONS. 



STATIONAHY (SEMAPHORE) SIGiS"ALS. 

Semaphore Signals are constructed with Arms foi 

day Signals, and Coloured Lamps for night and 
A ^'^ooJ weather. 



The " Danger Signal " is shown, in the 
day time, by the arm on the left-hand side 
of the post being raised to the horizontal 
position, thus : — (Fig. 27). 



S^^ni^SSS- 



Fig. 27. 
and by the exhibition of a red light at night. 



The " Caution Signal " is shown, in the 
day time, by the arm on the left-hand side 
of the post being placed half-way to the 
horizontal position, thus : — (Fig. 28). 




— <^r5?»^i/«is?s55> 



Fig. 28. 
and by the exhibition of a green light by night. 



The "All Right Signal" is shown, in 
the day time, by the left-hand side of the 
post being clear, thus : — (Fig. 29j. 




Fig. 29. 



and by a ivhite light by night. 



REGULATIONS. 23 J 



PERCUSSION OR FOa SIGNALS. 

The Percussion Signal is used in addition to the 
ordinary Day and Night Signals in foggy loeather^ and 
when unforeseen obstructions have occurred which render 
it necessary to stop approaching trains. 

It is fixed upon the rail (label upwards) by bending 
down the leaden clips attached to it for that purpose, 
and upon being run over by an engine or train eo'plodes 
with a loud report. 

The Signal, Caution — Proceed slowly, after bringing 
the train to a stand, is to be given by the explosion of 
one Fog Signal. 

The Signal, Danger — Stop, is to be given by the 
explosion of two or 7nore Fog Signals in near succession. 

HAND SIGNALS BY NIGHT. 

To prevent ordinary Hand Lamps being mistalien for 
Signals, men must avoid waving them when moving 
about, unless when absolutely necessary, taking care in 
all cases to hold the dark side as much as possible 
towards the Engine-driver. In the exhibition of Hand 
Signals, men on duty should select positions conspicuous 
to the Enginemen and Guards of Trains. 

To provide for the proper guidance of the movement 
of trains taking on or putting off Wagons or Carriages 
upon some railways at Stations, the following Signals 
are used : — 

When the Train at a Station is wanted to be moved 
forward to the points of a Connection or Siding, the 
Guard, when on the ground, signals to the Engineman 
for this by movirg his Green Light up a)id down, and 



238 REGULATIONS. 

continues to do so until the tail of the train is far 
enough forward, when he gives a Signal to Stop, by 
showing a Red Light. 

When the train has to be hacked through a Connec- 
tion or into a Siding, the Guard moves his Green Light 
from side to side across his body, and continues to do so 
until the train is far enough through, when he stops 
the train by exhibiting a Red Light. 

Again, when the train has to return to the Main 
Line, the Guard signals with his White Light by 
moving it from side to side across his body, continuing 
to do so until the Train arrives on the Main Line. 
When he takes his place on the Train he signals to 
the Engineman to proceed on his journey by simply 
showing a White Light. 

During these movements all parties are required to 
see that a proper looh-out is kept, to prevent collisions 
with other Trains coming up, and each, in his depart- 
ment, to take the necessary precautions. 

BEFORE STARTING. 

The enginemen and firemen should appear on duty 
as clean as circumstances will allow ; and they should be 
with their engines at such time previous to starting as 
their foreman may require, in order to see that the 
engines are in proper order to go out. 

Every engineman, before starting on his day's work, 
is in all cases to inspect the notices affixed to the notice- 
boards in the steam-sheds, in order to ascertain if there 
is anything requiring his special attention on parts of 
the line over which he is going to work, as he is respon- 
sible for any accident that may take place owing to his 
neglecting to read the notices posted in the sheds. 



REGULATIONS. 239 

Tlie duty of eacli engine-driver is determined by tlie 
locomotive superintendent ; and no turn of duty should 
be altered, and no over-work should be undertaken, by 
any man, on any account, without the sanction of the 
locomotive superintendent, or his foreman, except on 
sudden emergencies, and it must then be reported by 
the engine-driver in his daily return. 

It is the duty of drivers^ before starting^ to see that 
their engines are in proper working order, have the 
necessary supply of coal and tcater, that the fog-signah 
are in a fit state for use, and that all the necessary tools 
and stores are on the tender, and in efficient order. 

Enginemen should always see before starting that 
their lights are in proper order, and that they have 
the proper distinguishing light for the train they are 
drawing. 

Under no pretence are enginemen allowed to meddle 
with safety-valves, to obtain higher steam pressure. 

Snow brooms must not be used on the engine ffuard- 
irons except snow is actually on the ground, lest they 
should remove fog signals placed on the rails. 

Enginemen when leaving the shed should test the 
pumps or injectors and sand- valves, to see they work 
properly ; particular attention must also be given to 
those parts recently renewed, and should any irregu- 
larities be felt or heard, the engine must be stopped and 
examined. 

No person, except the proper engineman and fire- 
man, is allowed to ride on the engine or tender without 
the special permission of the directors, or one of the chief 
officers of the company ; and no fireman must move an 
engine except when instructed by the driver, and unless 
he has also an orde^^ ^om the superintendent. 



240 REGULATIONS. 



WHILST EUNNINa. 



Engine-driyers are strictly enjoined to start and stop 
their trains slowly and without a jerk, so as to avoid 
the risk of snapping the couplings ; and, except in case 
of danger, they must be careful not to shut off steam 
suddenly, and thereby cause unnecessary concussion of 
carriages or waggons. On starting, the fireman must 
look out behind to see that all the carriages are attached 
and all right. 

When two engines are employed in drawing the 
same train, the engineman of the second engine must 
watch for and take his signals from the engineman of 
the leading engine, and great caution must be used in 
starting such a train to prevent the breaking of the 
couplings. 

Every engine-driver is provided with a time-table, 
showing the exact time in which each journey is to be 
performed, excepting for special and ballast trains, the 
speed of which must be regulated by circumstances. 
He must endeavour to run the engine at a uniform 
speed, from which he should vary as little as possible. 
He must on no account run before the time specified in 
the time-table : and he will do well to consult the fol- 
lowing table frequently, to enable him to judge with 
certainty the rate at which he is travelling, or should 
travel, to arrive at a given station at a certain time :-— 



REGULATIONS. 



241 



Table showing the speed of an Engine, when the time of perform- 
ing a Quarter, Half, or One Mile is given. 



1 

Speed 


Time of 


Time of 


Time of 


Speed 


Time of 


Time ot 


Time of 


pel' 


perform- 


perfoim- 


perform- 


per 


perform- 


peiform- 


perform- 


liovir. 


ing I mile. 

1 


ing ^ mile. 


ing 1 mile. 


hour. 


ing \ mile. 


ing i mile, 


ing 1 mile. 


miles. 


m. 8. 


m. B. 


m. s. 


miles. 


m. s. 


m. s. 


m. 8. 





3 


6 


12 


33 


27 


54 


1 49 


6 


2 30 


5 


10 


34 


26 


53 


1 46 


7 


2 8 


4 17 


8 34 


35 


25 


51 


1 43 


8 


1 52 


3 45 


7 30 


36 


25 


50 


1 40 


9 


1 40 


3 20 


6 40 


37 


24 


48 


1 37 


10 


1 30 


3 


6 


38 


23 


47 


1 34 


11 


1 21 


2 43 


5 27 


39 


23 


46 


1 32 


12 


1 15 


2 30 


5 


40 


22 


45 


1 30 


13 


1 9 


2 18 


4 37 


41 


21 


43 


1 27 


14 


1 4 


2 8 


4 17 


42 


21 


42 


1 25 


15 


1 


2 


4 


43 


20 


41 


1 23 


16 


56 


1 52 


3 45 


44 


20 


40 


1 21 


17 


53 


1 46 


3 31 


45 


20 


40 


1 20 


18 


50 


1 40 


3 20 


46 


19 


39 


1 18 


19 


47 


1 34 


3 9 


47 


19 


38 


1 16 


20 


45 


1 30 


3 


48 


18 


37 


1 15 


21 


42 


1 25 


2 51 


49 


18 


36 


1 13 


22 


40 


1 21 


2 43 


50 


18 


36 


1 12 


23 


39 


1 18 


2 36 


51 


17 


35 


1 10 


24 


37 


1 15 


2 30 


52 


17 


34 


1 9 


25 


36 


1 12 


2 24 


53 


17 


34 


1 7 


26 


34 


1 9 


2 18 


54 


16 


33 


1 6 


27 


33 


1 6 


2 13 


55 


16 


32 


1 5 


28 


32 


1 4 


2 8 


56 


16 


32 


1 4 


29 


31 


1 2 


2 4 


57 


15 


31 


1 3 


30 


30 


1 


2 


58 


15 


31 


1 2 


31 


29 


58 


1 56 


59 


15 


30 


1 1 1 


32 


28 


56 


1 52 


60 


15 


30 


1 j 



When an engine is in motion, the driver must stand 
where he can keep a good look-out ahead. 

The fireman must also keep a sharp look-out, when 
not otherwise engaged, and especially for any signals 
from the guard, which he will immediately communicate 



to the engmeman. 



Firemen must always obey the orders of englnemen^ 



R 



242 REGULATIONS. 

Englnemen should before starting ascertain tlie num- 
ber of vehicles in tbeir trains, in order to work their 
engines accordingly. 

Enginemen should not close the regulator to cut the 
steam oJBP with the reversing-gear, and they should allow 
their engines to get away smart, with a few vigorous 
beats, before pulling the lever up, which should be 
done by degrees as the speed increases. 

Enginemen must pay implicit attention to the orders 
and signals of guards in all matters relating to the stop- 
ping or starting of trains. 

Enginemen must on no account place any reliance 
on the belief that their train is signalled by telegraph ; 
as the fact of a train being so signalled should not in 
any way diminish the vigilance of their *' look-out." 
The fixed station, junction, and distant signals, with 
the hand and detonating signals, must alone be re- 
garded and depended on by the enginemen. 

Enginemen and firemen must pay immediate attention 
to all signals^ whether the cause of their being given is 
known to them or not. 

On approaching junctions, enginemen are to sound 
the whistle, to give the pointsmen notice of their ap- 
proach. Enginemen are, as far as practicable, to have 
their firemen disengaged when passing a station, or on 
approaching or passing a junction, so that they may 
assist to keep a good look-out for signals. 

When an engineman finds a distant signal exhibiting 
the danger signal, he must immediately turn ofi^ steam, 
and reduce the speed of his train, so as to he able to stop 
at the distant signal; but if he sees that the way is clear 
he must proceed slowly and cautiously within the dis- 
tant signal, having such control of his train as to be 



REGULATIONS. 243 

able to stop it at any moment , and bring his engine or 
train to a stand as near tbe station or junction as the 
circumstances will allow. 

Whenever a distant or other signal appears in any 
intermediate position to the proper distances at which it 
works, it is to be treated as if indicating "Stop," the 
presumption being that the machinery of the signal is 
out of order. 

The absence of a signal at a place where a signal is 
ordinarily shown, or a signal imperfectly exhibited, is 
to be considered as a danger signal, and treated ac- 
cordingly. 

Whenever an engineman perceives a red flag, or other 
symbol, which he understands to be a signal to stop, he 
must bring his engine to a complete stand close to the 
signal, and must on no account pass it. 

An unlighted signal after dark must be considered a 
stop signal. 

There may be cases requiring a train to stop, either 
from a signal or from the personal observation of the 
engine-driver, when the most prompt judgment and 
skill will be required to decide whether to stop quickly 
or merely to shut off the steam, and let the train stop 
of itself; this must be left to the judgment of the 
driver. As a general rule, it may be considered that, 
if anything is the matter with the engine requiring to 
stop, the quicker it can be done the better ; but if any 
intermediate parts of the train are off the rails, allow- 
ing the carriages to stop of themselves has, in some 
cases, kept up a disabled carriage, when it is probable, 
if the brake had been applied in front, the carriages 
behind would have forced themselves over the disabled 
one. If, however, the disabled carriage should be the 



244 REGULATIONS. 

last, or nearly the last, in the train, the brake in front 
may b^ applied with advantage ; but if towards the 
middle or the front of the train, it is better to let the 
carriages stop gradually, as, by keeping up a gentle 
pull, the disabled carriage is kept mor ' out of the way 
of those behind until the force of the latter is exhausted. 
In all cases the application of brakes behind the dis- 
abled carriages will be attended with the greatest 
advantage and safety. 

The engine whistle must not be used more than is 
absolutely necessary, the sound being calculated to 
alarm and disturb passengers, and the public residing 
in the vicinity of the railway, and to frighten horses. 

When two engines are with a train, the signals are 
to be made by the leading engine. 

As a general rule, enginemen are at all times to 
exercise the greatest watchfulness ; they are to be ever 
on the alert, and, while on duty, to keep their minds 
entirely fixed on that which is required to be done. 

If an engineraan should observe anything wrong on 
jhe line of rails opposite to that on which his train is 
running, or should he meet an engine or train too 
closely following any preceding engine or train, he 
must exhibit a caution or danger signal, as occasion 
may require, to the engineman of such following engine 
or train. 

When the road is obscured by steam or smoke (owing 
to a burst tube or any other cause), no approaching 
engine is allowed to pass through the steam until the 
engineman shall have ascertained that the road is clear ; 
and if any engineman perceive a train stopping, from 
accident or other cause, on the road, he is immediately 
to slacken his speedy so that he may pass such train 



REGULATIONS. 



245 



slowly, and stop altogether if necessary, in order to 
ascertain the cause of the stoppage, and report it at the 
next station. 

Where there is an accident on the opposite line to 
that on which he is moving, he is to stop all the trains 
between the spot and the next station, and caution the 
respective enginemen ; and he is, further, to render 
every assistance in his power in all cases of difficulty. 

Engine-drivers must report, immediately on arrivpl 
at the first station, any obstruction upou the line from 
slips or other causes. 

When meeting another engine, the drivers should 
stand on the right-hand side, so as to be near each other 
in passing, ready to give or receive a signal whether 
the line which they have passed is clear, whether a 
train is a-head, or any cause of danger exists. 

Enginemen, in bringing up their trains, are to pay 
particular attention to the state of the weather and the 
condition of the rails as well as to the length of the 
train ; and these circumstances must have due weight 
in determining when to shut off the steam. Stations 
must not be entered so rapidly as to require a violent 
application of the breaks. 

In going down inclined planes, enginemen must take 
care that they have complete control over the trains, 
by applying their breaks ; and they must on no account 
attempt to make up lost time in going down inclined 
planes. 

No train with two engines attached is to be allowed 
to descend any inclined plane without the *»team being 
shut off the second engine. 

Due regard must be paid to the caution boards passed 
at various parts of the line, and the drivers are strictly 



246 KEGULATIONS. 

forbidden to exceed the speed marked thereon where it 
is specified. 

Enginemen must carefully approach all stations at 
which their trains are required to stop, and must not 
overrun the platform. 

In no case is the engine-driver to put back when he 
has run past a station until he receives a signal from 
the station-master or guard ; and he must be careful to 
avoid any delay from overrunning or stopping short of 
stations. 

Enginemen are warned against improperly cottering 
up any joint or brass, and thereby causing the journals 
to become hot, or allowing any slide, block, or journal 
to cut or tear for want of oil or grease. 

The fireman is to look back at starting from a station 
to see that the stop signal is not subsequently given, 
and that all the train is attached, and frequently when 
on the journey, and more particularly in passing all 
points where a signalman is stationed, to observe if he 
or the guard continues the *' all right " signal after the 
train has passed, or turns on the " stop '' signal to 
indicate that something is wrong, and to satisfy himulf 
the engine is on the right line. 

In case a train, when in motion, should become dis- 
connected into two or more parts, care must be taken 
not to stop the front part of the train before the 
detached portions have either stopped or come gently 
up. 

Should fire be discovered in a train, the steam must 
be instantly shut ofi", the brakes applied, and the train 
brought to a stand ; the proper signals must then be 
made for the protection of the line, and the burning 
vehicle or vehicles be detached with as little delay as 



REGULATIONS. 247 

possible, and ttie best means adopted to extinguisb the 
fire. 

Whenever an engine passes over a detonating signal, 
or a hand signal to stop is seen, the driver must inune- 
diately shut off steam, and proceed with great caution 
until he has ascertained that the line is quite clear, or 
until a second signal is passed, when the train must be 
stopped immediatety. 

Should an accident occasion the stoppage of both 
lines of railway, the engineman must send the fireman 
in advance of the train to signal trains travelling on 
the opposite line of rail to that upon which his train 
was running. 

The following is the mode of applying the deto- 
nating signals. In case of obstruction, where it is 
necessary to stop any engine or train following on the 
same line, one of the signals is to be placed by the 
person engaged in the duty, at the end of every 250 
yards, for a distance of not less than 1,000 yards from 
the place of obstruction (on levels, but farther on 
descending gradients, or, if a curve, to continue it until 
the red signal can be seen round the curve ; and should 
the distance end in a tunnel, then the signal is to be 
exhibited at the end of the tunnel furthest from the 
obstruction), in the proper direction, and t^m must be 
fixed ten yards apart at the point where the signalman 
stands at the moment a following train comes in sight, 
or, on arriving at the end of the distance named, 
between him and the approaching train : five signals 
will thus be required to protect the train. The stop 
flag signal, or lamp at night, must at the same time be 
exhibited as conspicuously as possible, and every exertion 
made to stop any approaching engine or train. 



248 REGULATIOXS. 



AT STATIONS AND STOPPINQ PLACES. 

On stopping at a station, tlie engine-driver should 
examine and oil the engine, and if any of the journals 
or working parts are hot, they must have more oil, and, 
if necessary, be eased. 

Whenever an engine is standing, the spare steam 
must be turned into the tender, so as to allow as little 
as possible to escape by the safety-valves. 

In all cases when an engine is standing, however 
short the time, the tender-brake is to be screwed on 
tight until the signal is given for starting. 

Enginemen and firemen must not go away from their 
engines during their hours of duty, unless authorised 
by the locomotive foreman, and must never leave an 
engine in steam without shutting the regulator, putting 
the engine out of gear, and fixing down the tender- 
brake. 

Whenever an engiiie-driver is required by a station- 
master to do anything which may appear in excess of 
the driver's duty or unreasonable, he is not to refuse 
to do it unless inconsistent with safety ; but the matter 
is to be referred to the locomotive superintendent. 

Enginemen are not allowed (except in case of acci- 
dent or sudden illness) to change their engines on the 
journey, nor to leave their respective stations without 
the permission of their superior officers. 

It is very important that engine-drivers use the 
utmost caution when shunting waggons into sidings, so 
as to avoid injuring the waggons or other property of 
the Company. 

Eng:ine- drivers should avoid, as much as possible. 



REGULATIONS. 249 

blowing oS steam or opening the feed-pipes at stations, 
or in passing trains or men, or anywhere where 
the steam might occasion danger by obstructing the 
sight. 

Enginemen and firemen must not interfere with 
points connected with the main line except in cases of 
extreme urgency, and when there is no pointsman who 
can attend to them. 

Every engine-driver is to afford all assistance with 
his engine that may be required for the arrangement 
and despatch of the trains ; and if running an engine 
alone or with goods, he must not refuse loaded or 
empty waggons, if he has power to pull them, unless 
he has special orders on the subject. 

If a train, or a portion of it, is drawn into a station 
or a siding with a tow-rope, care must be taken to 
stretch the rope gradually by a gentle advance of the 
engine ; and great attention must be paid to the signals 
given by the man conducting the operation. 

When trains are shunted for other trains to pass, 
the tail lamps must be removed, or so disposed as not 
to exhibit the red light to the following train. 

AT THE END OF A JOURNEY. 

The engine-driver after every trip should carefully 
examine his engine, test the valves and pistons, and 
make immediate report to the locomotive superintendent 
or foreman of any accident to it or to the train ; as 
also of any obstruction or defect in the line, neglect 
of signals, or other irregularity observed during the 
journe}^ 

Every engineman, at the conclusion of the day's 



250 REGULATIONS. 

work, must put his engine in the place appointed for 
it after the fireman has dropped the fire and raked the 
ash-pan clean out over the pit appropriated for that 
purpose ; and he must see that the regulator is left 
properly shut, the engine out of gear, tender-brake on, 
and the boiler properly filled with water. 

Every engineman, at the end of his journey^ must 
report in the driver's report-book provided for that 
purpose — first, as to the state of his engine and tender ; 
second f as to any defect in the road ; third, as to any 
defect in the working of signals, as to any irregularity 
in the working of his trains, such as time lost by 
engine and traffic causes, hot axles, &c. 

The engine-driver is to keep an account of the duty 
performed by his engine, and make a daily return of 
the same to the foreman. 



APPENDIX. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE GENERAL ACTS OF 
PARLIAMENT FOR THE REGULATION 
OF RAILWAYS. 

6 & 6 Victoria, cap. 55, sec. 17. 

Railway Servants gidlty of Misconduct. Funishment of 
Persons employed on Raihvays guilty of Misconduct. 

Sec. 17. — And whereas by the said recited Act for 
regulating railways provision is made for the punish- 
ment of servants of railway companies guilty of mis- 
conduct, and it is expedient to extend such provision ; 
be it enacted, That it shall be lawful for any officer or 
agent of any railway company, or for any special con- 
stable duly appointed, and all such persons as they may 
call to their assistance, to seize and detain any engine- 
driver, wagon-driver, guard, porter, servant, or other 
person emploj^ed by the said or by any other railway 
company, or by any other company or person in con- 
ducting traffic upon the railway belonging to the said 
company, or in repairing and maintaining the works of 
the said railway, w^ho shall be found drunk while so 
employed upon the said railway, who shall commit any 
offence against any of the bye-laws, rules, or regula- 



252 ACTS OF PARLIAMENT. 

tions of the said company, or wlio shall wilfully, 
maliciously, or negligently do or omit to do any act, 
whereby the life or limb of any person passing along 
or being upon such railway or the works thereof 
respectively shall be or might be injured or endan- 
gered, or whereby the passage of any engines, carriages, 
or trains shall be or might be obstructed or impeded ; 
and to convey such engine-driver, guard, porter, ser- 
vant, or other person so offending, or any person coun- 
selling, aiding, or assisting in such offence, with all 
convenient despatch before some Justice of the Peace 
for the ]3lace within which such offence shall be com- 
mitted, without any other warrant or authority than 
this Act ; and every such person so offending, and 
every person counselling, aiding, or assisting therein 
as aforesaid, shall, when convicted before such Justice 
as aforesaid (who is hereby authorised and required 
upon complaint to him made upon oath, without 
information in writing, to take cognizance thereof, and 
to act summarily in the premises), in the discretion of 
such justice be imprisoned, with or without hard 
labour, for any term not exceeding two calendar 
months, or, in the like discretion of such Justice, shall 
for every such offence forfeit to her Majesty any sum 
not exceeding £10, and in default of payment thereof 
shall be imprisoned, with or without hard labour as 
aforesaid, for such period, not exceeding two calendar 
months, as such Justice shall appoint ; such commit- 
ment to be determined on payment of the amount of 
the penalty ; and every sucli penalty shall be returned 
to the next ensuing court of quarter-sessions in the 
usual manner. 



ACTS OF PARLIAME>^T. 2o3 

3 & 4 YicTORiA, cap. 97. 

Justice may send any case to he tried at the Quarter 

Sessions. 

Sec. 14. — Provided always^ and be it enacted, That 
(if upon the hearing of any such complaint he shall 
think fit) it shall be lawful for such Justice, instead of 
deciding upon the matter of complaint summarily, to 
commit the person or persons charged with such offence 
for trial for the same at the quarter sessions for the 
county or place wherein such offence shall have been 
committed, and to order that any such person so com- 
mitted shall be imprisoned and detained in any of her 
Majesty's gaols or houses of correction in the said 
county or place in the meantime, or to take bail for his 
appearance, with or without sureties, in his discretion ; 
and every such person so offending and convicted be- 
fore such court of quarter sessions as aforesaid (which 
said court is hereby required to take cognizance of, and 
hear and determine such complaint), shall be liable in 
the discretion of such court to be imprisoned, with or 
without hard labour, for any term not exceeding two 
years. 

8 & 9 YicTORiA, cap. 16. 

Bye-Laws — Company may make Bye-Laws for rcfjulating 
the conduct of their Officers and Servants. — Copies to 
be given to Officers. 

Sec. 124. — It shall be lawful for the company from 
time to time to make such bj^e-laws as they think fit, 
for the purpose of regulating the conduct of the officers 



254 ACTS OF PARLIAMENT. 

and servants of the company, and for providing for the 
due management of the affairs of the company in all 
respects whatsoever, and from time to time to alter or 
repeal any such bye-laws, and make others, provided 
such bye-laws be not repugnant to the laws of that 
part of the United Kingdom where the same are to 
have effect, or to the provisions of this or the special 
act ; and such bye-laws shall be reduced into writing, 
and shall have affixed thereto the common seal of the 
company ; and a copy of such bye-laws shall be given 
to every officer and servant of the company affected 
thereby. 

Fines may he imposed for Breach of such Bye-Laws. 

Sec. 125. — It shall be lawful for the company, by 
such bye-laws, to impose such reasonable penalties upon 
all persons, being officers or servants of the company, 
offending against such bye-laws, as the company think 
fit, not exceeding five pounds for any one offence. 



INDEX. 



A CTS OF PARLIAMENT re- 
lating to regulation of rail- 
ways, 251, 
Arch, brick, 28, 67. 
Arithmetic, 201. 
Ash-pan, 28 ; inspection of, 86. 
Axle-boxes, description of, 25, 43; 
hot bearings, 25 ; inspection of, 
85. 

■p ARREL of the boiler, 9. 

Beats of an engine, 72, 106. 

Big-ends, 44; inspection of, 82; 
brasses, 164. 

Blast-pipes, 17. 

Blower, 29 ; use of, 145. 

Boiler, description of, 9, 34 ; 
mountings, 12 ; workmanship, 
48 ; washing out, 158 ; filling, 
159. 

Brake, inspection of, 87 ; steam- 
brake, 45. 

Brakes, 25, 43. 

Brass, re-metalling, 166. 

Break-down, what to do, 135. 

Burritt, Elihu, on the Locomotive 
Engine, 1. 



r^AB, 29, 47. 

Certificates for UriA'ers, 190, 
Examination for, 194. 

Chimney, 11. 

Coal, to find average consump- 
tion of, per mile, 218 ; table of 
consumption, 228. 

Coal, Welsh, 97 ; its behaviour in 
the firebox, 110. 

Combustion, principles of, 177. 

Compression, 24. 

Concave fire, 113. 

Connecting-rods, 27, 41. 

Coupling-rods, 27. 

Crank-axle, 15, 42. 

Cylinder-covers, 40. 

Cylinders, 14, 37; lubrication of, 
145. 



■p\AMPER, working the, 123. 

"^ Diagram of engine's run- 
ning, 217. 

Driver, Engine (see Engine- 
driver). 

Driving, successful, how attained, 
77. 



256 



INDEX. 



■gJNGINE-DRIVER, how to 
become, 72; qualities of a 

model driver, 7o ; his duties, 

79, 102; certificates for, 190; 

examinations for certificates, 

194, 198, 200. 
Engines, sister, differences of, 66. 
Excentric, 15, 42 ; inspection of, 

90. 
Excentric-straps, 42. 
Expansion-links, 16. 

T^AILURES, and their causes, 
148. 

Feed, management of, 126 ; gaug- 
ing the boiler, 126. 

Feed-pumps, 17, 43. 

Feed-water, composition of, 12o. 

Fire, making-up, 97 ; manage- 
ment of, 78 ; haycock fire, 112 ; 
concave fire, 113 ; how to fire 
properly, 114, 118; when to 
fire, 115; bad firing, 117; to- 
wards the end of a journey, 139. 

Fire-bars, 28. 

Firebox, 10, 35; examination of, 
160 ; to find the heating sur- 
face, 224. 

Firebox shell, 9. 

Firemen, in the shed, 89, 94 ; 
duties and training of, 92. 

Foot-plate, inspection of engines 
from, 80 ; on the foot-plate 
with a train, 127. 

Framing, 13, 34. 

Free running, 67. 



pAUGE- GLASSES, 31, 37; 

putting in, 88. 
Gearing, inspection of, 85. 
Glands, inspection of, 85 ; pack- 
ing of, 163. 



Glasses, gauge, 31. 



'' 8 



Guide-bars, 15. 

TTAYCOCK fire, 112. 

Heating surface of a fire- 
box, to find, 224. 

Hornblocks, 14. 

Horse-power of a locomotive, to 
calculate, 222. 

Hydraulics, 171. 

Hydrostatics, 171. 

JNDICATOR, 165; indicator- 
diagram, 166. 
Injector, description of, 18 ; man- 
agement of, 125. 
Iron, quality of, to test, 230. 

JOHNSON, Mr. S. W., express 






bogie-engine by, 65. 



TT^NOTS, 231. 



J^AP, 24. 

Lead, 23 ; inside lead, 24. 

Little-ends, 41; inspection of, 84. 

Locomotives, general description 
and classification, 8 ; detailed 
description, 33 ; the " Grosve- 
nor," by IVL*. William Stroud- 
lej^, 33 ; the " Pandora," by 
Mr. John Ramsbottom, 58 ; 
express locomotive by Mr. 
Patrick Stirling, 62 ; express 
Bogie-engine, by Mr. S. W. 
Johnson, 65 ; difi"erences of 
sister engines, 66 ; free run- 
ning, 67 ; steadiness and safety, 
67. 

Logarithms, hyperbolic, table of, 
187. 

Lubrication, 25, 45. 



INDEX. 



257 



"\/riND, presence of, 131. 

Mounting of boiler, 12 ; 
examination oF, 160. 



N 



OTICE-BOARD, 79, 89. 



/RILING the macliinery, 79. 
^ Oxyg-en, 178. 

TDISTOXS, 40 ; to test, 90, lOo. 
Piston-rod, 40 : inspection 

of, 86. 
Pneumatics, 173. 
Ports, steam, 38. 
Pressure, effective average, in the 

cylinder, 185. 
Priming, 12y. 
Puffing Billy, 74. 



"pAILWAYS, Regulation of, 
Acts of Parliament relating 

thereto, 251. 
Ramshottom, express locomotive 

by, 58 ; his safety-valves, 12, 

61. 
Regulators, 12, 36. 
Reversing handle, 42. 
Road, knowledge of, 129. 
Running, free, 67- 

O AFETY, 67. 

Safety-valves, description of 
12; Mr. liamsbottom's safety- 
■valve, 12, 61 ; Adams's safety- 
valve, 37 ; principles of. 40. 

Sand-box, 29. 

Screw-shackle, inspection of, 88. 

Shed, inspection of engine in, 81, 
90 ; condition of fire in, 89. 

Shed-day, 158. 



Signals, code of. 234, 

Signals, knowledge ot, 127, 129. 

Sister engines, differences of, 66 

Slide-bars, 40; pressure on, 108. 

Slide-valves, description of, 20, 
38 ; to set, 69 ; to test, 90 ; lu- 
brication of, 145. 

Smoke in firebox, to consume, 
179. 

Smoke-box, 11 ; inspection of, 87. 

Speed, to calculate, from the 
driving-wheel, 221. 

Speed-indicator, 46. 

Springs, laminated, 26, 43 ; coni- 
cal, 27 ; inspection of springs, 
85. 

Steadiness, 67. 

Steam, expansion of. 181. 

Steam, keeping up, lO'J. 

Steam-blowing, 105. 

Steam-brake, 45, 

Steam-pipe, 17, 38. 

Steam-ports, 38. 

Stirling, Mr. Patrick, express lo- 
comotive by, 66. 



'"HALLOW, use of, for lubrica- 

tion, 100. 
Telford, in his element, 73. 
Tenders : Mr. Stroudley's tender, 

33. 

Terminus, approaching a, man- 
agement of engine and train, 
145. 

Tool-box, 31. 

Tools, &c., required for an engine, 
29 ; should be at hand, 138. 

Traffic, knowledge of, 130. 

Train, number of vehicles in, 102 ; 
management of engine with, 
103. 

Tubes, 11 ; cleaning tubes, 163. 



8- 



258 



INDEX. 



T/'ALVE-aEAIl, 41. 

Valves, safety (see Safety- 

Valves, slide (see Slide-valves). 



TTTATER evaporated per ]iound 
^^ of coal, to find, 220. 
Wheels, 43. 
Wind, force of, 231. 
Workmanship, 47. 



THE END. 



TRINIKD BY J. S. VIRTUE AND CO., LIWITED, CITY ROAD, LCNDua. 



7t Stationers' Hall Court, London, E.G. 

A CATALOGUE OF BOOKS 

INCLUDING MANY NEW AND STANDARD WORKS IN 

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CIVIL ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, etc. 



TJie Water Supply of Cities and Toivns. 

A COMPREHENSIVE TREATISE on the WATER-SUPPLY 
OF CITIES AND TOWNS. By William Humber, A-M. Inst. C.E., and 
M. Inst, M.E., Author of "Cast and Wrought .Iron Bridge Construction," 
&c., &c. Illustrated with 50 Double Plates, i Single Plate, Coloured 
Frontispiece, and upwards of 250 Woodcuts, and containing 400 pages of 
Text. Imp. 4to, £6 6s. elegantly and substantially half-bound in morocco. 

List of Contents. 



I. Historical Sketch of some of the means 
that have been adopted for the Supply of Water 
to Cities and Towns. — II. Water and the Fo- 
reig^n Matter usually associated with it.— III. 
Ramfall and Evaporation.— IV. Springs and 
the water-bearing formations of various dis- 
tricts. — V. Measurement and Estimation of the 
flow of Water — VI. On the Selection of the 
Source of Supply.— VII. WeUs.— VIII. Reser- 
voirs. — IX. The Purification of Water. — X. 
Pumps. — XI. Pumping Machinery. — XII. 



Conduits.— XIII. Distribution of Water.— XIV. 
Meters, Service Pipes, and House Fittings. — 

XV. The Law and Economy of Water Works. 

XVI. Constant and Intermittent Supply. — 

XVII. Description of Plates. — Appendices, 
giving Tables of Rates of Supply, Velocities, 
&c. &c., together with Specifications of several 
Works illustrated, among which will be found : 
Aberdeen, Bideford, Canterbury, Dundee, 
Halifax, Lambeth, Rotherham, IDubiin, and 
others. 



" The most systematic and valuable work upon water supply hitherto produced in English, or 
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— Engineer. 

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mation on a subject so important as the water supply of cities and towns. The plates, fifty in 
number, are mostly drawings of executed works, and alone would have commanded the attention 
of every engineer whose practice may lie in this branch of the profession." — Bxiilder. 

Cast and Wrought Iron Bridge Construction, 

A COMPLETE AND PRACTICAL TREATISE ON CAST 
AND WROUGHT IRON BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION, including Iron 
Foundations. In Three Parts — Theoretical, Practical, and Descriptive. By 
William Humber, A-M. Inst. C.E., and M. Inst. M.E. Third Edition, Re- 
vised and much improved, with 115 Double Plates (20 of which now first 
appear in this edition), and numerous Additions to the Text. In Two Vols. 
imp. 4to, £6 i6s. 6d. half-bound in morocco. 

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elevations, plans and sections, large scale details are given which very much enhance the instruc- 
tive worth of these illustrations. No engineer would willingly be without so valuable a fund of 
information.' — Civil Engineer a7t(i Architect's Journal. 

"Mr. Humber's stately volumes, lately issued — in which the most important bridges erected 
during the last five years, under the direction of the late Mr. Brunei, Sir W. Cubitt, Mr. Hawk 
shaw, Mr. Page, Mr. Fowler, Mr. Hemans, and others among our most eminent engineeri are 
drawn and specified in great <^z\.'aSS.."— Engineer 

B 



4 CROSBY LOCK WOOD <&- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

Survey Practice, 

AID TO SURVEY PRACTICE, for Reference in Surveying, Level- 
ling, Setting-Old and in Route Surveys of Travellers by Land and Sea. With 
Tables, Illustrations, and Records. By Lewis D'A. Jackson, A.M.I.C.E., 
Author of " Hydraulic Manual," " Modern Metrology," &c. Large crown 8vo 
i2S.6d. cloth. 

" Mr. Jackson has produced a valuable Z'ade-}iteai7?i for the surveyor. We can recommend 
this book as containing an admirable supplement to the teaching of the accomplished survej'or." — 

" As a text-book we should advise all surveyors to place it in their libraries, and study well tl.TC 
matured instructions afforded in its pages." — Colliery Guardian. 

" The author brings to his work a fortunate union of theory and practical experience whicU, 
aided by a clear and lucid style of writing, renders the book a very useful one." — Builder. 

Surveyinfj, Lund and 3Iarlne, 

LAND AND MARINE 5?7i?F£7/iVG, in Reference to the Pre- 
paration of Plans for Roads and Railways ; Canals, Rivers, Towns' Water 
Supplies: Docks and Harbours. With Description and Use of Surveying 
Instruments. By W. Davis Haskoll, C.E., Author of " Bridge and Viaduct 
Construction," &c. Second Edition, Revised, with Additions. Large crown 
8vo, gs. cloth. 

" This book must prove of great value to the student. We have no hesitation in recommend- 
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"A most useful and well arranged book for the aid of a student. We can strongly recommend 
it as a carefully written and valuable text-book. It enjoys a well-deserved repute among surveyors.' 
— Builder. 

Levelling, 

A TREATISE ON THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF 
LEVELLING. Showing its Application to purposes of Railway and Civil 
Engineering, in the Construction of Roads ; with Mr. Telford's Rules for the 
same. By Frederick W. Simms, F.G.S., M. Inst. C.E. Seventh Edition, with 
the addition of Law's Practical Examples for Setting-out Railway Curves, and 
Trautwine's Field Practice of Laying-out Circular Curves. With 7 Plates 
and numerous Woodcuts, 8vo, 8s. 6rf. cloth. %* Trautwine on Curves, 
separate, 5s. 

" The text-book on levelling in most of our engineering schools and colleges." — Engineer. 
" The publishers have rendered a substantial service to the profession, especially to the younger 
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Tunnelling, 

PRACTICAL TUNNELLING. Explaining in detail the Setting, 
out of the works. Shaft-sinking and Heading-driving, Ranging the Lines and 
Levelling underground, Sub-Excavating, Timbering, and the Construction 
of the Brickwork of Tunnels, with the amount of Labour required for, and the 
Cost of, the various portions of the work. By Frederick W. Simms, F.G.S^ 
M. Inst. C.E. Third Edition, Revised and Extended by D. Kinnear Clark, 
M, Inst. C.E. Imp. 8vo, with 21 Folding Plates and numerous Wood Engrav- 
ings, 30S. cloth, 

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— Architect. 

" It has been regarded from the first as a text-book of the subject Mr. Clark has 

added immensely to the value of the book." — Engineer. 

" The additional chapters by Mr. Clark, containing as they do numerous examples of modern 
practice, bring the book well up to date." — Engineering. 

Statics f Grajyhic and Analytic. 

GRAPHIC AND ANALYTIC STATICS, in Theory and Compari- 
son : Their Practical Application to the Treatment of Stresses in Roofs, Solid 
Girders, Lattice, Bowstring and Suspension Bridges, Braced Iron Arches and 
Piers, and other Frameworks. To which is added a Chapter on Wind Pr>;s- 
sures. By R. Hudson Graham, C.E. With numerous Examples, many taken 
from existing Structures. 8vo, i6s. cloth. 

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E}zgineer. 

"This exhaustive treatise is admirably adapted for the architect and engineer, and will tend 
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kine." — Building Ne7us. 

" The work is ercellent from a practical point of view, and has evidently been prepared with 
much care. It is an excellent textbook for the practical draughtsman,' — Athenamn. 



CIVIL ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, etc. 5 

Hydraulic Tables, 

HYDRAULIC TABLES, CO-EFFICIENTS, and FORMULJE 
for finding the Discharge of Water from Orifices, Notches, Weirs, Pipes, and 
Rivers. With New Formulae, Tables and General Information on Rainfall, 
Catchment-Basins, Drainage, Sewerage, Water Supply for Towns and Mill 
Power. By John Neville, Civil Engineer, M.R.I. A. Third Edition, care- 
fully revised, with considerable Additions. Numerous Illustrations. Crown 
Svo, 14s. cloth. 

Alike valuable to students and engfineers in practice ; its study will prevent the annoyance of 
avoidable failures, and assist them to select the readiest means of successfully carrying out any 
given work connected with hydrauhc engineering." — Miiwt^^ jFonrnal. 

" It is, of all English books on the subject, the one nearest to completion. . . . From the 
good arrangement of the matter, the clear explanations, and abundance of formulce, the carefully 
calculated tables, and, above all, the thorough acquaintance with both theory and construction, 
which is displayed from first to last, the book will be found to be an acquisition." — Architect. 

JRiver Enfjineering. 

RIVER BARS : The Causes of their Formation, and their Treatment 
by ^^ Induced Tidal Scour." With a Description of the Successful Reduction 
by this Method of the Bar at Dublin. By I.J.Manx, Assist. Eng. to the 
Dublin Port and Docks Board. Royal 8vo, ys. 6d. cloth. 

" \Ve recommend all interested in harbour works — and, indeed, those concerned in the improve- 
ments of rivers generally— to read Mr. Mann's interesting work on the treatment of river bars." — 
Engineer. 

" The author's discussion on wave-action, currents, and scour is intelligent and interesting. . . 
a most valuable contribution to the history of this branch of engineering." — Engiiieeri>ig and 
Mini}tg yoiirnal. 

Mydraiilics, 

HYDRA ULIC MANUAL. Consisting of Working Tables and 
Explanatory Text. Intended as a Guide in Hydraulic Calculations and Field 
Operations. By Lewis D'A. Jackson. Fourth Edition. Rewritten and En- 
larged, Large crown Svo, 16s. cloth. 

■" From the great mass of material at his command the author has constructed a manual which 
may be accepted as a trustworthy guide to this branch of the engineer's profession. We can 
heartily recommend this volume to all who desire to be acquainted with the latest development of 
this important subject." — Engineering. 

" The standard work in this department of mechanics. The present edition has been brought 
abreast of the most recent practice." — Scotsman. 

" The most useful feature of this work is its freedom from what is superannuated and its 
thorough adoption of recent experiments ; the text is, in fact, in great part a short account of the 
great modern experiments." — Nature. 

Ti^aimvays and their Worlting, 

TRAMWAYS : THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING. 
Embracing a Comprehensive History of the System ; with an exhaustive 
Analysis of the various Modes of Traction, including Horse-Power, Steam, 
Heated Water, and Compressed Air ; a Description of the Varieties of Rolling 
Stock ; and ample Details of Cost and Working Expenses : the Progress 
recently made in Tramway Construction, &c. &c. By D. Kinnear Clark, 
M. Inst. C.E. With over 200 Wood Engravings, and 13 Folding Plates. Two 
Vols,, large crown Svo, 30s. cloth. 

" AU interested in tramways must refer to it, as all railway engineers have turned to the author's 
work ' Railway Machinery.'" — E7igineer. 

" An exhaustive and practical work on tramways, in which the history of this kind of locomo- 
tion, and a description and cost of the various modes of laying tramways, are to be found. ' — 
Btiilding News. 

" The best form of rails, the best mode of construction, and the best mechanical appliances 
jtfe so fairly indicated in the work under review, that any engineer about to construct a tramway 
will be enabled at once to obtain the practical information which will be of most service to him." — 
y4t/ten(Ztt?n. 

Oblique Arches. 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF 
OBLIQUE ARCHES. By John Hart. Third Edition, with Plates. Im- 
perial 8vo, 8s. cloth. 

Strength of Girders, 

GRAPHIC TABLE FOR FACILITATING THE COM PUT A. 
TION OF THE WEIGHTS OF WROUGHT IRON AND STEEL 
GIRDERS, &c., for Parliamentary and other Estimates. By J. H. Watson 
Buck, M. Inst. C.E. On a Sheet, 2s.6d. 



6 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

Tables for Setting-out Curves, 

TABLES OF TANGENTIAL ANGLES AND MULTIPLES 
for Setting-out Curves from 5 to 200 Radius. By Alexander Beazeley, 
M. Inst. C.E. Third Edition. Printed on 48 Cards, and sold in a cloth box, 
waistcoat-pocket size, 3s. 6d. 

' Each table is printed on a small card, which, being' placed on the theodolite, leaves the hands 
free to manipulate the instrument — no small advantage as regards therapidity of work." — Engineer. 

"Very handy ; a man may know that all his day's work must fall on two of these cards, which 
he puts into his own card-case, and leaves the rest behind." — AthencBuin. 

Engineering Fleldivorh, 

THE PRACTICE OF ENGINEERING FIELDWORK, applied 
to Land and Hydraulic, Hydrographic, and Submarine Surveying and Levelling^ 
Second Edition, Revised, with considerable Additions, and a Supplement on 
Waterworks, Sewers, Sewage, and Irrigation. By W. Davis Haskoll, C.E- 
Numerous Folding Plates. In One Volume, demy 8vo, £1 5s. cloth. 

Large Tunnel Shafts, 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF LARGE TUNNEL SHAFTS : A 
Practical and Theoretical Essay. By J. H. Watson Buck, M. Inst. C.E., 
Resident Engineer, London and North-Western Railway. Illustrated with 
Folding Plates, royal 8vo, 12s. cloth. 

" Many of the methods given are of extreme practical value to the mason ; and the observations- 
on the form of arch, the rules for ordering the stone, and the construction of the templates will b& 
found of considerable use. We commend the book to the engineering profession." — Bicilding 
News. 

" Will be regarded by civil engineers as of the utmost value, and calculated to save much time 
and obviate many mistakes." — Colliery Gicardian. 

Field-Booh for Engineers, 

THE ENGINEER'S, MINING SURVEYOR'S, AND CON- 
TRA CTOR 'S FIELD-BOOK. Consisting of a Series of Tables, with Rules, 
Explanations of Systems, and use of Theodolite for Traverse Surveying and 
Plotting the Work with minute accuracy by means of Straight Edge and Set 
Square only ; Levelling with the Theodolite, Casting-out and Reducing 
Levels to Datum, and Plotting Sections in the ordinary manner; setting-out 
Curves with the Theodolite by Tangential Angles and Multiples, with Right 
and Left-hand Readings of the Instrument : Setting-out Curves without 
Theodolite, on the System of Tangential Angles by sets of Tangents and Ofl- 
sets : and Earthwork Tables to So feet deep, calculated for every 6 inches in 
depth. By W. Davis Haskoll, C.E. With numerous Woodcuts, Fourth 
Edition, Enlarged. Crown 8vo, 12s. cloth. 

"The book is very handy, and the author might have added that the separate tables of sine<i 
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"Every person engaged in engineering field operations will estimate the importance of such a 
work and the amount of valuable time which will be saved by reference to a set of reliable tables 
prepared with the accuracy and fulness of those given in this volume." — Railway News. 

Earthwork, 3Ieasurer,ient and Calculation of, 

A MANUAL ON EARTHWORK. By Alex. J. S. Graham^ 
C.E. With numerous Diagrams. i8mo, 2s. 6rf. cloth. 

"A great amount of practical information, very admirably arranged, and available for rough 
estimates, as weU as for the more exact calculations required in the engineer's and contractor's- 
of^cQS."—Artizan, 

Strains, 

THE STRAINS ON STRUCTURES OF IRONWORK; with 
Practical Remarks on Iron Construction. By F. W. Sheilds, M. Inst. C.E> 
Second Edition, with 5 Plates. Royal 8vo, 5s. cloth. 
"The student cannot find a better little book on this snhject."—£n£'in£er. 

Strength of Cast Iron, etc, 

A PRACTICAL ESSAY ON THE STRENGTH OF CAST 
IRON AND OTHER METALS. By Thomas Tredgold, C.E. Fifth 
Edition, including Hodgkinson's Experimental Researches. 8vo, 12s. cloth. 



MECHANICS S- MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. 7 

MECHANICS & MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. 

The Modernised ^^Tenijyleton,'' 

THE PRACTICAL MECHANICS WORKSHOP COM- 
PA NION. Comprising a great variety of the most useful Rules and Formulae 
in Mechanical Science, with numerous Tables of Practical Data and Calcu- 
lated Results for Facilitating Mechanical Operations. By William Temple- 
ton, Author of "The Engineer's Practical Assistant," &c. &c. An Entirely 
New Edition, Revised, Modernised, and considerably Enlarged by Walter 
S. HuTTON, C.E., Author of "The Works' Manager's Handbook of Modern 
Rules, Tables, and Data for Engineers," &c. Fcap. 8vo, nearly 500 pp., with 
8 Plates and upwards of 250 Illustrative Diagrams, 6s., strongly bound for 
workshop or pocket wear and tear. {Just published. 

&-i^ Templeton's " Mechanic's Workshop Companion" has been formore 
than a quarter of a century deservedly popular, having run through numeroiis Edi- 
tions ; and, as a recognised Text-Book and well-worn and thumb-marked vade 
mecum. of several generations of intelligent and aspiring workmen, it has had the 
reputation of having been the means of raising many of them in their position in life. 
In its present greatly Enlarged, Improved and Modernised form, the Publishers 
are sure that it will commend itself to the English workmen of the present day all 
the world over, and become, like its predecessors, their indispensable friend and 
referee. 

A smaller type having been adopted, and the page increased in size, while the 
number of pages has advanced from about 330 to nearly 500, the book practically con- 
tains double the amount of matter that was comprised in the original work. 

\* Opinions of the Press. 

"In its modernised form Hutton's ' Templeton ' should have a wide sale, fo it contains much 
valuable information which the mechanic will often find of use, and not a few tables and notes which 
he might look for in vain in other works. This modernised edition will be appreciated by all who 
have learned value the original editions of ' Templeton.' ' — English Mecliaiiic. 

" It has met with great success in the engineering workshop, as we can testify ; and there are 
a great many men who, in a great measure, owe their rise in life to this little book." — BiMdins^ 
Ne-ws. 

Engineer's and Machinists Assistant. 

THE ENGINEER'S, MILLWRIGHT'S, and MACHINIST'S 
PRACTICAL ASSISTANT. A collection of Useful Tables, Rules and Data. 
By William Templeton. Seventh Edition, with Additions. iSmo, 2s. 6d. 
cloth. 

" Templeton's handbook occupies a foremost place among books of this kind. A more suitable- 
present to an apprentice to any of the mechanical trades could not possibly be made. " — Bttildi7t£ 

News. 

Turning. 

LATHE-WORK : A Practical Treatise on the Tools, Appliances, 

and Processes employed in the Art of Turning. By Paul N. Hasluck. 

Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, 5s. cloth. 

" Written by a man who knows, not only how work ought to be done, but who also knows how 
to do it, and how to convey his knowledge to others."— Eng^i7ieeriiig: 

We can safely recommend the work to young engineers. To the amateur it will simply be- 
invaluable. To the student it will convey a great deal of useful information." — Eitgijieer. 

"A compact, succinct, and handy guide to lathe-work did not exist in our language until Mr, 
Hasluck, by the publication of this treatise, gave the tnvner a. true vade-fnecujft." — House Decorator, 

Iron and Steel, 

«« IRON AND STEEL " : A Work for the Forge, Foundry, Factory, 
and Office. Containing ready, useful, and trustworthy Information for Iron- 
masters and their Stock-takers ; Managers of Bar, Rail, Plate, and Sheet 
Rolling Mills ; Iron and Metal Founders ; Iron Ship and Bridge Builders ; 
Mechanical, Mining, and Consulting Engineers ; Architects, Contractors, 
Builders, and Professional Draughtsmen. By Charles Hoare, Author of 
" The Slide Rule,'' &c. Eighth Edition, Revised throughout and considerably 
Enlarged. With folding Scales of " Foreign Measures compared with the 
English Foot," and " Fixed Scales of Squares, Cubes, and Roots, Areas, 
Decimal Equivalents, &c." Oblong 32mo, leather, elastic band, 6s. 
"For comprehensiveness the book has not its equal." — Iron. 
"One of the best of the pocket books, and a useful companion in other branches of work than- 

ron and steel." — English Mechanic. 

" We cordially recommend this book to those engaged in considering the details of all kinds of 

iron and steel works."— JVazal Scte>tce. 



8 CROSBY LOCK WOOD &- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

Stone-ivorlcing ^lachinerij, 

STONE-WORKING MACHINERY, and the Rapid and Economi- 
cal Conversion of Stone. With Hints on the Arrangement and Management 
of Stone Works. By M. Powis Bale, M.I.M.E., A.M.I.C.E. With numerous 
Illustrations. Large crown 8vo, gs. cloth, 

"The book should be in the hands of every mason or student of stone-work." — Colliery 
Guardian. 

Engineer's Reference Book. 

THE WORKS' MANAGER'S HANDBOOK OF MODERN 
RULES, TABLES, AND DATA. For Engineers, Millwrights, and Boiler 
Makers; Tool Makers, Machinists, and Metal Workers; Iron and Brass 
Founders, &c. By W. S. Hutton, Civil and Mechanical Engineer. Third 
Edition, carefully revised, witti Additions. In One handsome Volume, medium 
8vo, price 15s. strongly bound. 

"The author treats every subject from the point of view of one who has collected workshop 
rotes lor application in workshop practice, rather than from the theoretical or literarj' aspect. The 
volume contains a great deal of that kind of information which is gained only by practical experi- 
ence, and is seldom written in books.'' — Engineer. 

"The volume is an exceedingly useful one, brimful with engineers notes, memoranda, and 
rules, and well worthy of being on every mechanical engineer's bookshelf. . . . There is 
valuable information on everj' page." — Mechanical World. 

" The information is preciselj- that likely to be required in practice. . . . The work forms 
a desirable addition to the library, not only of the works' manager, but of anyone connected with 
general engineering." — Mining- journal. 

"A formidable mass of facts and figures, readily accessible through an elaborate index 
.... Such a volume will be found absolutely necessary as a book of reference in all sorts 
of 'works' connected with the metal trades. . . . Any ordinarj- foreman or workman can find 
all he wants in the crowded pages of this useful work." — Ry land's Iron Trades Circular 

Engineering Construction, 

PATTERN -MAKING : A Practical Treatise, embracing the Main 
Types of Engineering Construction, and including Gearing, both Hand and 
Machine made. Engine Work, Sheaves and Pulleys, Pipes and Columns, 
Screws, Machine Parts, Puihps and Cocks, the Moulding of Patterns in 
Loam and Greensand, &c., together with the methods of Estimating the 
weight of Castings; to which is added an Appendix of Tables for Workshop 
Reference. By a Foreman Pattern Maker. With upwards of Three 
Hundred and Seventy Illustrations. Crown 8vo, ys. 6d. cloth. 

"A well-written technical guide, evidentl}- written bj' a man who understands and has prac- 
tised what he has written about ; he savs what he has to saj' in a plain, straightforward manner. 
We cordial!}' recommend the treatise to engineering students, j'oung journeymen, and others 
desirous of being initiated into the mysteries of pattern-making." — Builder. 

"We can confidently recommend this comprehensive treatise." — Building Xe^vs. 

" A valuable contribution to the literature of an important branch of engineering construction, 
■which is likely to prove a welcome guide to many workmen, especially to draughtsmen who have 
lacked a training in the shops, pupils pursuing their practical studies in our factories, and to em- 
ployers and managers in engineering \ioxV.s''— Hardware Trade yojcrnal. 

"More than 370 illustrations help to explain the text, -^hich is, however, always clear and ex- 
plicit, thus rendering the work an excellent vade 7necuni for the apprentice who desires to become 
master of his trade." — English Mechanic. 

Smith's Tables for 3Iechanics, etc, 

TABLES, MEMORANDA, AND CALCULATED RESULTS, 
FOR MECHANICS, ENGINEERS, ARCHITECTS, BUILDERS, etc. 
Selected and Arranged by Francis Smith. Third Edition, Revised and En- 
larged, 250 pp., waistcoat-pocket size, is. 6d. limp leather. 

"It would, perhaps, be as difficult to make a small pocket-book selection of notes and formulae 
to suit ALL engineers as it would be to make a universal medicine ; but Mr. Smith's waistcoat- 
pocket collection may be looked upon as a successful attempt." — Engineer. 

"The best example we have ever seen of 250 pages of useful matter packed into the dimen- 
sions of a card-case." — Bidlding News. 

"A veritable pocket treasury of knowledge." — Iron, 

The High-JPressure Steam Engine, 

THE HIGH-PRESSURE STEAM-ENGINE : An Exposition 
of its Comparative Merits and an Essay toxvards an Improved System of Construc- 
tion. By Dr. Ernst Alban. Translated from the German, with Notes, by 
Dr. Pole, M. Inst. C.E., &c. With 28 Plates. Svo, i6s. 6d. cloth. 

"Goes thoroughly into the examination of the high-pressure engine, the boiler, and its append- 
ages, and deserves a place in every scientific library." — Steam Shipping Chronicle. 



MECHANICS &- MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. 



Steam Boilers, 

A TREATISE ON STEAM BOILERS: Their Strength, Con- 
struction, and Economical Working. By Robert Wilson, C.E. Fifth Edition. 
I2IU0, 6s. cloth. 

"The best treatise that has ever been published on steam boilers." — Ejigineer. 

"The author shows himself perfect master of his subject, and we heartily recommend all em- 
ploying- steam power to possess themselves of the work," — Rylajid'i Iro7i Trade Circular. 

Boiler 3IaJxing. 

THE BOILER.MAKER'S READY RECKONER. With Ex- 
amples of Practical Geometry and Templating, for tbe Use of Platers, 
Smiths and Riveters. By John Courtney, Edited by D. K. Clark, M.I. C.E. 
Second Edition, revised, with Additions, lamo, 5s. half-bound. 

" A most useful work No workman or apprentice should be without this book. — 

Iron Trade Circular. 

"A reliable g^uide to the working boiler-maker." — /rojt. 

" Boiler-makers will readily recognise the value of this volume. . . . The tables are clearly 
printed, and so arranged that they can be referred to with the greatest facility, so that it cannot be 
doubted that they w ill be generally appreciated and much used." — Mining Jouriial. 

Steam Engine. 

TEXT-BOOK ON THE STEAM ENGINE. By T. M. 

GooDEVE, M.A., Barrister-at-Law, Author of " The Elements of Mechanism," 
&c. Seventh Edition. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 6s. cloth. 

"Professor Goodeve has given us a treatise on the steam engine which will bear comparison 
with anything written by Huxlej- or Maxwell, and we can award it no higher praise." — Engineer. 

Steam, 

THE SAFE USE OF STEAM. Containing Rules for Un- 
professional Steam-users. By an Engineer. Fifth Edition. Sewed, 6d. 

" If steam-users would but learn this little book by heart, boiler explosions would become 
sensations by their rarity." — English Mechanic. 

Coal and Speed Tables. 

A POCKET BOOK OF COAL AND SPEED TABLES, for 

Engineers and Steam-users. By Nelson Folev, Author of " Boiler Con- 
struction." Pocket-size, 3s. 6d. cloth ; 4s. leather. 

"This is a very useful book, containing very useful tables. The results given are well chosen, 
and the volume contains evidence that the author really understands his subject. We can reconi- 
Kiend the work with pleasure." — Mechanical World. 

" These tables are designed to meet the requirements of every-day use ; they are of sufficient 
scope for most practical purposes, and may be commended to engineers and users of steam." — 
Iron. 

"This pocket-book well merits the attention of the practical engineer. Mr. Foley has com- 
piled a very useful set of tables, the information contained in which is frequently required by 
engineers, coal consumers and users of steam." — /ic/t and Coal Trades Revieiv. 

Fire Engineering, 

FIRES, FIRE-ENGINES, AND FIRE-BRIGADES. With 
a History of Fire-Engines, their Construction, Use, and Management; Re- 
marks on Fire-Proof Buildings, and the Preservation of Life from Fire ; 
Statistics of the Fire Appliances in English Towns ; Foreign Fire Systems ; 
Hints on Fire Brigades, &c. &c. By Charles F. T. Young, C.E. With 
numerous Illustrations, 544 pp., demy 8vo, £1 4s. cloth. 

"To such of our readers as are interested in the subject of fires and fire apparatus, we can most 
heartily commend this book. It is really the only English work we now have upon the subject." — 
EngineeriJig. 

"It displays much evidence of careful research; and Mr. Young has put his facts neatly 
together. It is evident enough that his acquaintance w ith the practical details of the construction of 
steam fire engines, old and new, and the conditions with which it is necessary they should comply, 
is accurate and full." — Engineer. 

Gas Lighting. 

COMMON SENSE FOR GAS-USERS: A Catechism of Gas- 
Lighting for Householders, Gasfitters, Millowners, Architects, Engineers, etc. 
By Robert Wilson, C.E., Author of " A Treatise on Steam Boilers." 
Second Edition. Crown 8vo, sewed, with Folding Plates and Wood En- 
gravings, 2S. 6d. 

" All gas-users will decidedly benefit, both in pocket and comfort, if they will avail themselves 
of Mr. Wilson's counsels." — Engineering. 



10 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

THE POPULAR WORKS OF MICHAEL REYNOLDS 

{Known as "The Engine Driver's Friend"). 

Locomotive- Engine Driving, 

LOCOMOTIVE-ENGINE DRIVING : A Practical Manual for 
Engineers in charge of Locomotive Engines. By Michael Reynolds, Member 
of the Society of Engineers, formerly Locomotive Inspector L. B. and S. C. R» 
Seventh Edition. Including a Key to the Locomotive Engine. With Illus- 
trations and Portrait of Author. Crown 8vo, 4s. 6d. cloth. 
"Mr. Reynolds has supplied a want, and has supplied it well. "We can confidently recommenc? 

the book, not only to the practical driver, but to everyone who takes an interest in the performance 

of locomotive engines." — The Eiii^ineer. 

" Were the cautions and rules g-iven in the book to become part of the every-day -working cS 

our engine-drivers, we might have fewer distressing accidents to deplore."— Scois?nan. 

The Engineer, Fireman, and Engine-Boy. 

THE MODEL LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEER, FIREMAN, and 
ENGINE-BOY. Comprising a Historical Notice of the Pioneer Locomotive 
Engines and their Inventors, with a project for the establishment of Certifi- 
cates of Qualification in the Running Service of Railways. By Michael- 
Reynolds, Author of " Locomotive-Engine Driving." With numerous lUuS" 
trations and a fine Portrait of George Stephenson. Crown 8vo, 4s. 6rf. cloth. 
" From the technical knowledge of the author it will appeal to the railway man of to-day more 
forcibly than anything written by Dr. Smiles. . . . The volume contains information of a tech- 
nical kind, and facts that every driver should be familiar with."— Bno^lis/t Mechanic. 

"We should be glad to see this book in the possession of everyone in the kingdom who has 
ever laid, or is to lay, hands on a locomotive engine."— /re;;/. 

Stationary Engine Driving. 

STATIONARY ENGINE DRIVING : A Practical Manual for 
Engineers in charge of Stationary Engines. By Michael Reynolds. Third 
Edition, Enlarged. With Plates and Woodcuts. Crown 8vo, 4s. 6d. cloth. 

"The author is thoroughly acquainted with his subjects, and his advice on the various points 
treated is clear and practical. . . . He has produced a manual which is an exceedingly usefuJ 
one for the class for whom it is specially intended." — Engineeriiv^. 

"Our author leaves no stone unturned. He is determined that his readers shall not only knov? 
something about the stationary engine, but all about \f.."— Engineer. 

Continuoxis Railivay Brakes. 

CONTINUOUS RAILWAY BRAKES : A Practical Treatise on 
the several Systems in Use in the United Kingdom ; their Construction and 
Performance. With copious Illustrations and numerous Tables. By Michael 
Reynolds. Large crown Svo, 95. cloth. 
" A popular explanation of the dilTerent brakes. It will be of great assistance in forming public 

opinion, and will be studied with benefit by those -who take an interest in the hrake."— English 

Mechanic. 

"Written with suflScient technical detail to enable the principle and relative connection of the 
various parts of each particular brake to be readily grasped." — Mechanical World. 

Engine-Driving Life, 

ENGINE-DRIVING LIFE; or. Stirring Adventures and Inci- 
dents in the Lives of Locomotive-Engine Drivers. By Michael Reynolds, 
Ninth Thousand. Crown Svo, 2s. cloth. 

"The book from first to last is perfectly fascinating. Wilkie Collins' most thrilling conceptions 
are thrown into the shade by true incidents, endless in their variety, related in every page." — North 
British Mail. 

"Anyone who wishes to get a real insight into railway life cannot do better than read ' Engine- 
Driving Life ' for himself ; and if he once take it up he will find that the author's enthusiasm and) 
real love of the engine-driving profession will carry him on till he has read every page." — Saturday 
Re-.'ieiv. 

Eocket Companion for Enginemen, 

THE ENGINEMAN'S POCKET COMPANION AND PRAC- 
TICAL EDUCATOR FOR ENGINEMEN, BOILER ATTENDANTS, 
AND MECHANICS. By Michael Reynolds, Mem. S. E., Author of 
"Locomotive Engine- Driving," " Stationary Engine-Driving," &c. With 
Forty-five Illustrations and numerous Diagrams. Royal i8mo, 3s. 6d., strongly 
bound in cloth for pocket wear, IJust published. 



ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, etc. ii 

ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, etc. 

Construction, 

THE SCIENCE OF BUILDING : An Elementary Treatise on 
the Principles of Construction. By E. Wyndham Tarn, M.A., Architect- 
Second Edition, Revised, with 58 Engravings. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. cloth. 

"A very valuable book, which we strongly recommend to all students." — Builder. 

" No architectural student should be without this handbook of constructional knowledge."— 
./irchiteci. 

Villa Architecture, 

A HANDY BOOK OF VILLA ARCHITECTURE: Being a 
Series of Designs for Villa Residences in various Styles. With Outline 
Specifications and Estimates. By C. Wickes, Architect, Author of "The 
Spires and Towers of England," &c. 30 Plates, 4to, half-morocco, gilt edges, 

*** Also an Enlarged Edition of the above. 61 Plates, with Outline Speci- 
fications, Estimates, &c. £2 2S. half-morocco. 

" The whole of the designs bear evidence of their being the work of an artistic architect, and 
they will prove very valuable and suggestive." — BiUlditig News. 

Useful Text-Booh for Architects, 

THE ARCHITECTS GUIDE: Being a Text-Booh of Useful 
Information for Architects, Engineers, Surveyors, Contractors, Clerks of 
Works, &c. &c. By Frederick Rogers, Architect, Author of " Specifica- 
tions for Practical Architecture," &c. Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged, 
With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 6s. cloth. 

"As a text-book of useful information for architects, engineers, surveyors, &c., it would b& 
hard to find a handier or more complete little volume." — Standard. 

"A young architect could hardly have a better guide-book." — Timber Trades journal. 

Taylor and Cresy's Home, 

THE ARCHITECTURAL ANTIQUITIES OF ROME. By 
the late G. L. Taylor, Esq., F.R.I.B.A., and Edward Cresy, Esq. New 
Edition, thoroughly revised by the Rev. Alexander Taylor, M.A. (son off 
the late G. L. Taylor, Esq.), Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, and Chap- 
lain of Gray's Inn. Large folio, with 130 Plates, half-bound, ^^3 3s. 
N.B. — This is the only book which gives on a large scale, and with the pre- 
cision of architectural measurement, the principal Monuments of Ancient Rome 
in plan, elevation, and detail. 

"Taylor and Cresy 's work has from its first publication been ranked among those professionals 
books which cannot be bettered. ... It would be difficult to find examples of drawings, evenj 
among those of the most painstaking students of Gothic, more thoroughly worked out than are the- 
one hundred and thirty plates in this volume." — Architect. 

Draiving for Builders and Students in Architecture^ 

PRACTICAL RULES ON DRAWING, for the Operative- 
Builder and Young Student in Architecture. By George Pyne. With 14 
Plates, 4to, ys. 6d. boards. 

Civil Architecture, 

THE DECORATIVE PART OF CIVIL ARCHITECTURE. 

By Sir William Chambers, F.R.S. With Illustrations, Notes, and an 
Examination of Grecian Architecture, by Joseph Gwilt, F.S.A. Edited by 
W. H. Leeds. 66 Plates, 4to, 21s. cloth. 

Tlie House-Owner^ s Estimator, 

THE HOUSE-OWNER'S ESTIMATOR ; or. What will it Cost 
to Build, Alter, or Repair? A Price Book adapted to the Use of Lnpro- 
fessional People, as well as for the Architectural Surveyor and Builder. By 
the late James D. Simon, A.R.I.B..\. Edited and Revised by Francis T. W.. 
Miller, A.R.I.B. A. With numerous Illustrations. Third Edition, Revised, 
Crown 8vo, 3s, 6d. cloth. 

"In two years it will repay its cost a hundred times over"— Pie!d, 
" A very handy book." — English Mecha7iic, 



12 CROSBY LOCK WOOD &- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

Designing, 3Ieasuring, find Valuing, 

THE STUDENTS GUIDE io the PRACTICE of MEASUR- 
ING AND VALUING ARTIFICERS' WORKS. Containing Directions for 
taking Dimensions, Abstracting the same, and bringing the Quantities into 
Bill, with Tables of Constants, and copious Memoranda tor the Valuation of 
Labour and Materials in the respective Trades of Bricklayer and Slater, 
Carpenter and Joiner, Painter and Glazier, Paperhanger, &c. With 8 Plates 
and 63 Woodcuts. Originally edited by Edward Dobson, Architect. Fifth 
Edition, Revised, with considerable Additions on Mensuration and Construc- 
tion, and a New Chapter on Dilapidations, Repairs, and Contracts, by E. 
Wyndham Tarn, M.A. Crown 8vo, gs. cloth. 

" Well fulfils the promise of its title-page, and ive can thoroughly recommend it to the class 
or whose use it has been compiled. Mr. Tarn's additions and revisions have much increased the 
usefulness of the work, and have especially augmented its value to students." — Eiigineeriyig . 

"The work has been carefully revised and edited by Mr. E. Wyndham Tarn, M.A., and com- 
prises several valuable additions on construction, mensuration, dilapidations and repairs, and other 
Matters. . . . This edition will be found the most complete treatise on the principles of measur- 
ing and valuing artificers' w^ork that has j-et been published." — Building I^'cws. 

docket Estimator, 

THE POCKET ESTIMATOR for the BUILDING TRADES. 
Being an Easy Method of Estimating the various parts of a Building collec- 
tively, more especially applied to Carpenters' and Joiners' work. By A. C. 
Beaton, Author of "Quantities and Measurements." Third Edition, care- 
fully revised, 33 Woodcuts, leather, waistcoat-pocket size, is. 6d. 

"Contains a good deal of information not easily to be obtained from the ordinary price books. 
The prices given are accurate, and up to date." — BiiildUis Ne~ws. 

Suilder^'s and Surveyor's Pocket Technical Guide, 

THE POCKET TECHNICAL GUIDE AND MEASURER 
FOR BUILDERS AND SURVEYORS. Containing a Complete Explana- 
tion of the Terms used in Building Construction, Memoranda for Reference, 
Technical Directions for Measuring Work in all the Building Trades, with a 
Treatise on the Measurement of Timber, Complete Specifications, &c. &c. 
By A. C. Beaton. Second Edition, with 19 Woodcuts, leather, waistcoat- 
pocket size, IS. 6d, 
"An exceedingly handy pocket companion, thoroughly reliable." — Bicildey's Weekly Reporter. 

" This neat little compendium contains all that is requisite in carrying out contracts for ex- 
cavating, tiling, bricklaying, paving, &c." — British Trade jfotcrnal. 

Donaldson on Specifications, 

THE HANDBOOK OF SPECIFICATIONS; or, Practical 
Guide to the Architect, Engineer, Surveyor, and Builder, in drawing up 
Specifications and Contracts for Works and Constructions. Illustrated by 
Precedents of Buildings actually executed by eminent Architects and En- 
gineers. By Professor T. L. Donaldson, P.R.I.B.A., &c. New Edition, in 
One large Vol., 8vo, with upwards of 1,000 pages of Text, and 33 Plates, 
£1 IIS. 6d. cloth. 

" In this work forty-four specifications of executed works are given, including the specifica- 
tions for parts of the new Houses of Parliament, by Sir Charles Barry, and for the new Royal 
Exchange, by Mr. Tite, M.P. The latter, in particular, is a very complete and remarkable 
document. It embodies, to a great extent, as Mr. Donaldson mentions, 'the bill of quantities 
with the description of the works.' . . . It is valuable as a record, and more valuable still as a 
book of precedents. . . . Suffice it to say that Donaldson's 'Handbook of Specifications' 
must be bought by all architects." — Builder. 

Darfholojnew and Hogers' Sjiecifications, 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR PRACTICAL ARCHITECTURE: 

A Guide to the Architect, Engineer, Surveyor, and Builder; with an Essay 

on the Structure and Science of Modern Buildings. Upon the Basis of the 

Work by Alfred Bartholomew, thoroughly Revised, Corrected, and greatly 

added to by Frederick Rogers, Architect. Second Edition, Revised, with 

Additions. With numerous lilusts., medium 8vo, 15s. cloth. IJust published. 

" The collection of specifications prepared by Mr. Rogers on the basis of Bartholomew's work 

K too well known to need any recommendation from us. It is one of the books with which every 

young architect must be equipped ; for time has shown that the specifications cannot be set aside 

through any defect in them " — Architect. 

" Good forms for specifications are of considerable value, and it was an excellent idea to com- 
pile a work on the subject upon the basis of the late Alfred Bartholomew's valuable work. The 
second edition of Mr. Rogers's book is evidence of the want of a book dealing with modern re- 
quirements and materials." — Bui/ding News, 



DECORATIVE ARTS, etc. 13 

DECORATIVE ARTS, etc. 



Woods and 3Iarhles (Iniitcitioii of). 

SCHOOL OF PAINTING FOR THE IMITATION OF WOODS 
AND MARBLES, as Taught and Practised by A. R. Van der Burg and P. 
Van der Burg, Directors of the Rotterdam Painting Institution. Second and 
Cheaper Edition. Royal folio, 185 by i2| in.. Illustrated with 24 full-size Co- 
loured Plates ; also 12 plain Plates, comprising 154 Figures, price £1 iis. 6d. 

List of Contents 

Introductory Chapter — Tools required for Methods of Working- — Yellow Sienna Marble 
AVood Painting — Observations on the different Process of Working — Juniper : Characteristics 
species of Wood: Walnut — Observations on of the Natural Wood: Method of Imitation — 
Marble in general — Tools required for Marble Vert de Mer Marble: Description of the Mar- 
Painting — St. Renii Marble : Preparation of the ble : Process of Working — Oak: Description of 
Paints: Process of AVorking — A\ood Graining : the varieties of Oak: Manipulation of Oak- 
Preparation of Stiff and Flat Brushes: Sketch- painting: Tools emplo5'ed : Method of Work- 
ing different Grains and Knots: Glazing of ing — Waulsort Marble: Varieties of the Marble : 
Wood — Ash: Painting of Ash — Breche (Brec- Process of Working — The Painting of Iron with 
cia) Marble : Breche Violette : Process of Work- Red Lead: How to make Putty: Out-door 
ing — Maple : Process of Working — The different AVork : Varnishing: Priming and Varnishing 
species of White Marble : Methods of Working: Woods and Marbles : Painting in General: Ceil- 
Painting White Marble with Lac-dye : Painting ings and Walls : Gilding : Transparencies, Flags, 
A\'liite Marble with Poppy-paint — Mahogany : &c. 

List 0/ Plates. 



Finished Specimen — 19. Mahogany: Specimens 
of various Grains and Methods of Manipulation 
— 20, 21. Mahogany: Earlier Stages and Finished 
Specinien — 22,23,24. Sienna Marble: Varieties 
of Grain, Preliminary Stages and Finished 
Specimen — 25, 26, 27. Juniper Wood : Methods 
of producing Grain, &c.: Preliminary Stages 
and Finished Specimen — 2S, 29, 30. Vert de 
Mer Marble : Varieties of Grain and Methods 
of Working Unfinished and Finished Speci- 
mens — 31. 32. 33. Oak : \'arieties of Grain, Tools 
Employed, and Methods of Manipulation, Pre- 
liminary Stages and Finished Specimen — 34, 35, 
36. Waulsort Marble: Varieties of Grain, Un- 
finished and Finished Specimens. 



I. Various Tools required for Wood Painting 
— 2, 3. AV'alnut : Preliminary Stages of Graining 
and Finished Specimen — 4. Tools used for 
Marble Painting and Method of Manipulation — 
5, 6. St. Remi Marble: Earlier Operations and 
Finished Specimen — 7. Methods of Sketching 
different Grains, Knots, &c. — S. 9. Ash: Pre- 
liminary Stages and Finished Specimen — 10. 
Methods of Sketching Marble Grains — 11, 12. 
Breche Marble : Preliminary Stages of Working 
and Finished Specimen — 13. Maple : Methods 
of Producing the different Grains — 14, 15. Bird's- 
eye Maple: Preliminary Stages and Finished 
Specimen — 16. Methods of Sketching the dif- 
ferent Species of White Marble — 17, 18. White 
Marble : Preliminary Stages of Process and 

" Those who desire to attain skill in the art of painting woods and marbles, will find advantage 
in consulting this book. . . . Some of the Working Men's Clubs should give their young men 
the opportunity to study it." — Bicilder. 

" A comprehensive guide to the art. "The explanations of the processes, the manipulation and 
management of the colours, and the beautifully executed plates will not be the least valuable to the 
student who aims at making his work a faithful transcript of nature." — Btiildwg Aews. 

Colour, 

A GRAMMAR OF COLOURING. Applied to Decorative 
Painting and the Arts. By George Field. New Edition, adapted to the 
use of the Ornamental Painter and Designer. By Ellis A. Davidson. With 
New Coloured Diagrams and Engravings. i2rao, 3s. 6d. cloth boards. 
"The book is a most useful resume of the properties of pigments." — Builder. 

House lyecoration. 

ELEMENTARY DECORATION. A Guide to the Simpler 

Forms of Everyday Art, as applied to the Interior and Exterior Decoration of 

Dwelling Houses, «&c. By James W. Facey. With 68 Cuts. 2S. cloth limp. 

"Asa technical guide-book to the decorative painter it will be found reliable." — Building News.. 

*** By the same Author, just published. 

PRACTICAL HOUSE DECORATION : A Guide to the Art of 
Ornamental Painting, the Arrangement of Colours in Apartments, and the 
principles of Decorative Design. With some Remarks upon the Nature and 
Properties of Pigments. With numerous Illustrations. i2mo, 2s. 6d. cl. limp 
N.B. — The above Two Works together in One Vol., strongly half-bound, 5s. 

House JPainting, etc, 

HOUSE PAINTING, GRAINING, MARBLING, AND SIGN 
WRITING, A Practical Manual of. By Ellis A. Davidson. Fourth Edition. 
With Coloured Plates and Wood Engravings. i2mo, 6s. cloth boards. 
A mass of informaticr, of use to the amateur and of value to the practical md.n.'—En£-lislt 
Mechanic. 



14 CROSBY LOCK WOOD &- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

DELAMOTTES' WO RKS on ILLUMINAT ION & ALPHABETS. 

A PRIMER OF THE ART OF ILLUMINATION, for the Use of 

Beginners : with a Rudimentary Treatise on the Art, Practical Directions for 
its exercise, and Exaaiples taken from Illuminated MSS., printed in Gold and 
Colours. By F. Delamotte. New and cheaper edition. Small 4to, 6s. orna- 
mental boards, 
". . . . The examples of ancient MSS. recommended to the student, which, -with much 

good sense, the author chooses from collections accessible to all, are selected with judgment and 

knowledge, as well as taste. ' — Atheiicsuvt. 

ORNAMENTAL ALPHABETS, Ancient and Mediceval, from the 
Eighth Century, with Ntifnerals ; including Gothic, Church-Test, large and 
small, German, Italian, Arabesque, Initials for Illumination Monograms, 
Crosses, &c. &c., for the use of Architectural and Engineering Draughtsmen, 
Missal Painters, Masons, Decorative Painters, Lithographers, Engravers, 
Carvers, &c. &c. Collected and Engraved by F. Delamotte, and printed in 
Colours. New and Cheaper Edition. Royal 8vo, oblong, 2S. 6d. ornamental 
boards. 

' For those who insert enamelled sentences round gilded chalices, who blazon shop legends over 
shop-doors, who letter church walls with pithy sentences from the Decalogue, this book will be use- 
<"ul." — Atheiicetati. 

EXAMPLES OF MODERN ALPHABETS, Plain atid Ornamental; 
including German, Old English, Saxon, Italic, Perspective, Greek, Hebrew, 
Court Hand, Engrossing, Tuscan, Riband, Gothic, Rustic, and Arabesque ; 
with several Original Designs, and an Analysis of the Roman and Old English 
Alphabets, large and small, and Numerals, for the use of Draughtsmen, Sur- 
veyors, Masons, Decorative Painters, Lithographers, Engravers, Carvers, &c. 
Collected and Engraved by F. Delamotte, and printed in Colours. New 
and Cheaper Edition. Royal 8vo, oblong, 2s. 6d. ornamental boards. 
"There is comprised in it every possible shape into which the letters of the alphabet and 

numerals can be formed, and the talent which has been expended in the conception of the various 

plain and ornamental letters is wonderful." — Sta7idard. 

MEDimVAL ALPHABETS AND INITIALS FOR ILLUMI- 
NATORS. By F. G. Delamotte, Containing 21 Plates and Illuminated 
Title, printed in Gold and Colours. With an Introduction by J. Willis 
Brooks, Fourth and cheaper edition. Small 4to, 4s. ornamental boards. 

" A volume in which the letters of the alphabet come forth glorified in gilding and all the colours 
of the prism interwoven and inteytwined and intermingled." — Su7i, 

THE EMBROIDERER'S BOOK OF DESIGN. Containing 
Initials, Emblems, Cyphers, Monograms, Ornamental Borders, Ecclesiastical 
Devices, Mediaeval and Modern Alphabets, and National Emblems. Col- 
lected by F. Delamotte, and printed in Colours. Oblong royal 8vo, is. 6d., 
ornamental wrapper. 

"The book will be of great assistance to ladies and young children v.ho are endowed with the 
of plying the needle in this most ornamental and useful pretty work." — East Anglian Titnes. 



Wood Carving, 

INSTRUCTIONS IN WOOD-CARVING, for Amateurs; with 
Hints on Design. By A Lady. With Ten large Plates, 2s. 6d. in emblematic 
wrapper. 

"The handicraft of the wood-carver, so well as a book can impart it, may be learnt from ' A 
Lady's ' puhlication."— A (/icna2cm. 

" The directions given are plain and easily understood."— JS?i£-lis/i Mechanic. 

Glass Tainting. 

GLASS STAINING AND THE ART OF PAINTING ON 
GLASS. From the German of Dr. Gessert and Emanuel Otto Fromberg. 
With an Appendix on The Art of Enamelling. i2mo, 2s. 6d. cloth limp. 

Letter Painting, 

THE ART OF LETTER PAINTING MADE EASY. By 
James Greig Badenoch. With 12 full-page Engravings of Examples, is. cloth 
limp. 

"The system is a simple one, but quite original, and well worth the careful attention of letter- 
painters. It can be easily mastered and remembered." — Buiidi/ig News. 



CARPENTRY, TIMBER, etc. 15 

CARPENTRY, TIMBER, etc. 

Tredgold's Carpentry, partly He-written and En- 
larged hy Tarn. 

THE ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF CARPENTRY. 
A Treatise on the Pressure and Equilibrium of Timber Framing, the Resist- 
ance of Timber, and the Construction of Floors, Arches, Bridges, Roofs, 
Uniting Iron and Stone with Timber, &c. To which is added an Essay 
on the Nature and Properties of Timber, &c., with Descriptions of the kinds 
of Wood used in Building ; also numerous Tables of the Scantlings of Tim- 
ber for different purposes, the Specific Gravities of Materials, &c. By Thomas 
Tredgold, C.E, With an Appendix of Specimens of Various Roofs of Iron 
and Stone, Illustrated. Seventh Edition, thoroughly revised and considerably 
enlarged by E. Wyndham Tarn, M.A., Author of "The Science of Build- 
ing," &c. With 61 Plates, Portrait of the Author, and several Woodcuts. In 
one large vol., 4to, price £1 5s. cloth. IJ^'st published. 

"Ought to be in every architect's and every builder's library." — E2iilder. 
" A work whose monumental excellence must commend it wherever skilful carpentry is con- 
cerned. The author's principles are rather confirmed than unpaired by time. The additional 
plates are of great intrinsic vaJue." — Building News. 

Woodivorlcing 3Iac7iinerij. 

WOODWORKING MACHINERY : Its Rise, Progress, and Con- 
struction. With Hints on the Management of Saw Mills and the Economical 
Conversion of Timber, Illustrated with Examples of Recent Designs by 
leading English, French, and American Engineers. By M. Powis B.\le, 
A.M. Inst. C.E., M.I.M.E. Large crown 8vo, 12s. 6d. cloth. 
" Mr. Bale is evidently an expert on the subject, and he has collected so much information that 

liis book is all-sufficient for builders and others engaged in the conversion of timber." — Architect. 
"The most comprehensive compendium of wood-working machinery we have seen. The 

author is a thorough master of his subject." — Bicilding Neics. 

" The appearance of this book at the present time will, we should think, give a considerable 

impetus to the onward march of the machinist engaged in the designing and manufacture of 

wood-working machines. It should be in the office of every wood-working factory." — English 

Mechanic. 

Saw 3TiUs. 

SAW MILLS: Their Arrangement and Management, and the 
Econotnical Conversion of Timber. (Being a Companion Volume to " Wood- 
working Machinery.") By M. Powis Bale, A.M. Inst. C.E., M.I.M.E. 
With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, los. 6d. cloth. 

"The author is favourably known by his former work on 'Woodworking Machinery,' of which 
we were able to speak approvingly. This is a companion volume, in. which the administration of 
a large sawing establishment is discussed, and the subject examined from a financial standpoint 
Hence the size, shape, order, and disposition of saw-mills and the like are gone into in detail, 
and the course of the timber is traced from its reception to its delivery in its converted state. 
We could not desire a more complete or practical treatise." — Builder. 

"We highly recommend Mr. Bale's work to the attention and perusal of all those who are en- 
gaged in the art of wood conversion, or who are about building or remodelling saw-mills on im- 
proved principles." — Building News. 

Carpentering. 

THE CARPENTER'S NEW GUIDE ; or, Book of Lines for Car- 
penters; comprising all the Elementary Principles essential for acquiring a 
knowledge of Carpentry. Founded on the late Peter Nicholson's Standard 
Work. A New Edition, revised by Arthur Ashpitel, F.S.A. Together 
with Practical Rules on Drawing, by George Pyns. V/ith 74 Plates, 
4to, £1 IS. cloth. 

Handrailing, 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON HANDRAILING : Showing 
New and Simple Methods for Finding the Pitch of the Plank, Drawing the 
Moulds, Bevelling, Jointing-up, and Squaring the Wreath. By George 
CoLLiNGS. Illustrated with Plates and Diagrams. lamo, is. 6d. cloth limp. 

Circidar Worh\ 

CIRCULAR WORK IN CARPENTRY AND JOINERY: A 
Practical Treatise on Circular Work of Single and Double Curvature. By 
George Collings, Author of " A Practical Treatise on Handrailing." Illus- 
trated with numerous Diagrams. i2mo, 2S. 6d. cloth limp. [Just published. 



i6 CROSBY LOCK WOOD &- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

Timber Merchant's Cofnpanion, 

THE TIMBER MERCHANTS AND BUILDER'S COM- 
PANION. Containing New and Copious Tables of the Reduced Weight and 
Measurement of Deals and Battens, of all sizes, from One to a Thousand 
Pieces, and the relative Price that each size bears per Lineal Foot to any 
given Price per Petersburg Standard Hundred ; the Price per Cube Foot of 
Square Timber to any given Price per Load of 50 Feet ; the proportionate 
Value of Deals and Battens by the Standard, to Square Timber by the Load 
of 50 Feet; the readiest mode of ascertaining the Price of Scantling per 
Lineal Foot of any size, to any given Figure per Cube Foot, &c. &c. By 
William Dowsing. Third Edition, Revised and Corrected, Crown 8vo, 
3s. cloth. 

"Everything is as concise and clear as it can possibly be made. There can be no doubt thai 
every timber merchant and builder ought to possess it." — H2ill Advertiser. 

" An exceedingly well-arranged, clear, and concise manual of tables for the use of all who buy 
or sell UmheT.''—J'o!crna/ 0/ Forestry. 

Practical Timber Merchant, 

THE PRACTICAL TIMBER MERCHANT. Being a Guide 
for the use of Building Contractors, Surveyors, Builders, &c., comprising 
useful Tables for all purposes connected with the Timber Trade, Marks of 
Wood, Essay on the Strength of Timber, Remarks on the Growth of Timber, 
&c. By W. Richardson. Fcap. 8vo, 3s. 6d. cloth. 

"This handy manual contains much valuable information for the use of timber merchants, 
builders, foresters, and all others connected with the growth, sale, and manufacture of timber.' — 

yoiiryial of Forestry. 

Timber Freight Book, 

THE TIMBER MERCHANTS. SAW MILLER'S, AND 
IMPORTER'S FREIGHT BOOK AND ASSISTANT. Comprising Rules, 
Tables, and Memoranda relating to the Timber Trade. By William 
Richardson Timber Broker; together with a Chapter on " Speeds of Saw 
Mill Machinery," by M. Povvis Bale, M.LM.E.. &c. lamo, 3s. 6d. cloth boards. 
"A very useful manual of rules, tables, and memoranda, relating to the timber trade. We re- 
commend it as a compendium of calculation to all timber measurers and merchants, and as supply- 
ing a real want in the trade." — Biiildiitg News. 

Tables for Pacl^ing-Case Makers, 

PACKING-CASE TABLES ; showing the number of Super- 
ficial Feet in Boxes or Packing-Cases, from six inches square and upwards. 
By W. Richardson, Timber Broker. Oblong 4to, 3s. 6d. cloth. 

" Invaluable labour-saving tables." — Iroiintotiger. 
" Will save much labour and calculation." — Grocer. 

Superficial Measurement. 

THE TRADESMAN'S GUIDE TO SUPERFICIAL MEA- 
SUREMENT. Tables calculated from i to 200 inches in length, by i to 108 
i.'iches in breadth. For the use of Architects, Engineers, Timber Merchants, 
Builders, &c. By James Hawkings. Third Edition. Fcap., 3s. 6d. cloth. 
" A useful collection of tables to facilitate rapid calculation of surfaces. The exact area of aay 
S'Jrface of which the limits have been ascertained can be instantly determined. The book will be 
found of the greatest utility to all engaged in building operations." — Scotsmatt. 

Forestry, 

THE ELEMENTS OF FORESTRY. Designed to afford In- 
formation concerning the Planting and Care of Forest Trees for Ornament or 
Profit, with Suggestions upon the Creation and Care of Woodlands. By F. B, 
Hough. Large crown 8vo, los. cloth. 

Timber Tmporter's Guide, 

THE TIMBER IMPORTER'S, TIMBER MERCHANT'S AND 
BUILDER'S STANDARD GUIDE. By Richard E. Grandy. Compris- 
ing an Analysis of Deal Standards, Home and Foreign, with Comparative 
Values and Tabular Arrangements for fixing Nett Landed Cost on Baltic 
and North American Deals, including all intermediate Expenses, Freight, 
Insurance, &c. &c. Second Edition, carefully revised. lamo, 3s. 6d. cloth. 
" Everything it pretends to be : built up gradually, it leads one from a forest to a treenail, and 

throws in, as a makeweight, a hcst of material concerning bricks, columns, cisterns, &iz."— English 

Mechanic, 



MINING AND MINING INDUSTRIES. 17 

MINING AND MINING INDUSTRIES. 



3Ietallifero us 31 in ing, 

BRITISH MINING : A Treatise on the History, Discovery, Practical 
'Development, and Future Prospects 0/ Metalliferous Mines in the United King- 
dom. By Robert Hunt, F.R.S., Keeper of Mining Records; Editor of 
"' Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines," &c. Upwards of 950 
pp., with 230 Illustrations, Super-royal 8vo, £3 3s. cloth. 

%* Opinions of the Press. 

"One of the most valuable works of reference of modern times. Mr. Hunt, as keeper of mining 
Tecords of the United Kingfdom, has had opportunities for such a task not enjoyed by anyone else, 
and has evidently made the most of them. . . . The language and style adopted are good, and 
the treatment of the various subjects laborious, conscientious, and scientific." — Ii>!,!^t/!eerin^. 

" Probably no one in this country was better qualified than Mr. Hunt for undertaking such a 
work. Brought into frequent and close association during a long life-time with the principal guar- 
dians of our mineral and metallurgical industries, he enjoyed a position exceptionally favourable 
for collecting the necessary information. The use which he has made of his opportunities is suffi- 
ciently attested by the dense mass of information crowded into the handsome volume which has 
just been published. ... In placing before the reader a sketch of the present position of 
British Mining, Mr. Hunt treats his subject so fully and illustrates it so amply that this section really 
forms a little treatise on practical mining. . . . The book is, in fact, a treasure-house of statistical 
ip-formation on mining subjects, and we know of no other work embodying so great amass of matter 
pf this kind. Were this the only merit of Mr. Hunt's volume it would be sufficient to render it 
indispensable in the library of everyone interested in the development of the mining and metallur- 
gical industries of this country." — Atheiiizutn. 

_ "A mass of information not elsewhere available, and of the greatest value to those who may 
t)e interested in our great mineral '\ndi\x~,Xx\&s."—E)igi}ieer. 

"A sound, business-like collection of interesting facts. . . The amount of information 

Mr. Hunt has brought together is enormous. . . . The volume appears likely to convey more 
instruction upon the subject than any work hitherto published." — Mini?tg- Journal. 

"The work will be for the mining industry what Dr. Percy's celebrated treatise has been for the 
metallurgical — a book that cannot with advantage be omitted from the hbrary." — Iron and Coal 
Trades' Revieiv. 

"The literature of mining has hitherto possessed no work approaching in importance to that 
■which has just been published. There is much in Mr. Hunt's valuable work that every shareholder 
in a mine should read with close attention. The entire subject of practical mining — from the first 
search for the lode to the latest stages of dressing the ore — is dealt with in a masterly manner." 
— Acadony. 

<Joal and Iron, 

THE COAL AND IRON INDUSTRIES OF THE UNITED 
KINGDOM. Comprising a Description of the Coal Fields, and of the Princi- 
pal Seams of Coal, with Returns of their Produce and its Distribution, and 
Analyses of Special Varieties. Also an Account of the occurrence of Iron 
Ores in Veins or Seams; Analyses of each Variety; and a History of the 
Rise and Progress of Pig Iron Manufacture since the year 1740, exhibicing the 
Economies introduced in the Blast Furnaces for its Production and Improve- 
nent. By Richard Meade, Assistant Keeper of Mining Records. With 
Maps of the Coal Fields and Ironstone Deposits of the United Kingdom. 
8vo, £1 8s. cloth. 
" The book is one which must find a place on the shelves of all interested in coal and iron 

production, and in the iron, steel, and other metallurgical industries." — Etigiiieer, 

" Of this book we may unreservedly say that it is the best of its class which we have ever met. 

- . . A book of reference which no one engaged in the iro.i or coal trades should omit from his 

librarj'." — Iron and Coal Trades' Review. 

"An exhaustive treatise and a valuable work of reference." — Mining journal. 

Prospecting, 

THE PROSPECTOR'S HANDBOOK : A Guide for the Pro- 
spector and Traveller in Search of Metal-Bearing or other Valuable Minerals. 
By J. W. Anderson, M.A. (Camb.), F.R.G.S., Author of "Fiji and New 
Caledonia." Small crown 8vo, 3s. 6if. cloth. [Just published. 

"Will supply a much felt want, especially among Colonists, i:'. whose way are so often thro-.vn 
iT.any mineralogical specimens, the value of which it is difficult for anyone, not a specialist, to 
determine. The author has placed his instructions before his readers in the plainest possible 
terms, and his book is the best of its kind." — Engineer. 

"How to find commercial minerals, and how to identify them when they are found, are the 
leading points to which attention is directed. The author has nianag d to pack as much practical 
detail into his pages as would supply material for a book three times its size." — Mining journal. 

" Those toilers who explore the trodden or untrodden tracks o.t the face of the globe will find 
much that is useful to them in this book." — Athenceum. 



i8 CROSBY LOCK WOOD cS- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

Metalliferous 3Iinerals and Mining, 

TREATISE ON METALLIFEROUS MINERALS AND 
MINING. By D. C. Davies, F.G.S., Mining Engineer, &c., Author of "A 
Treatise on Slate and Slate Quarrying." Illustrated with numerous Wood 
Engravings. Second Edition, carefully Revised. Crown 8vo, 12s. 6d. cloth. 

"Neither the practical miner nor the general reader interested in mines, canhave a better book 
for his companion and his guide." — Mining your}ial. 

"The volume is one which no student of mineralogy should be without." — Colliery Guardian^ 

" We are doing our readers a service in calling their attention to this valuable work." — Mining 
World. 

"A book that will not only be useful to the geologist, the practical miner, and the metallurgist : 
but also very interesting to the general public." — Iron. 

" As a history of the present state of mining throughout the world this book has a real value, 
and it supplies an actual want, for no such information has hitherto been brought together within 
such limited space." — Athaiceum. 

Earthy Minerals and 3Iining, 

A TREATISE ON EARTHY AND OTHER MINERALS 

AND MINING. By D. C Davies, F.G.S. Uniform with, and forming a 

Companion Volume to, the same Author's " Metalliferous Minerals and 

Mining." With 76 Wood Engravings. Crown 8vo, 12s. 6d. cloth. 

"It is essentially a practical work, intended primarily for the use of practical men. . . . We 

do not remember to have met with any English work on mining matters that contains the same 

amount of information packed in equally convenient form." — Academy. 

" The book is clearly the result of many years' careful work and thought, and we should be 
inclined to rank it as among the very best of the handy technical and trades manuals which have 
recently appeared." — British Quarterly Rcvieiu. 

"The subject matter of the volume will be found of high value by all — and they are a numer- 
ous class — who trade in earthy minerals." — Athentciini. 

" Will be found of permanent value for information and reference." — Iron. 

JJndergronnd JPumping Machinery, 

MINE DRAINAGE. Being a Complete and Practical Treatise 
on Direct-Acting Underground Steam Pumping Machinery, with a Descrip- 
tion of a large number of the best known Engines, their General Utility and 
the Special Sphere of their Action, the Mode of their Application, and 
their merits compared with other forms of Pumping Machinery. By Stephen 
MicHELL. 8vo, 15s. cloth. 

" Will be highly esteemed by colliery owners and lessees, mining engineers, and students 
generally who require to be acquainted with the best means of securing the drainage of mines. It 
is a most valuable work, and stands almost alone in the literature of steam pumping machinerj-." — 
Colliery Guardian. 

" Much valuable information is given, so that the book is thoroughly worthy of an extensive 
circulation amongst practical men and purchasers of machineryj' — Mining Journal. 

Mining Tools, 

A MANUAL OF MINING TOOLS. For the Use of Mine 
Managers, Agents, Students, &c. By William Morgans, Lecturer on Prac- 
tical Mining at the Bristol School of Mines. i2mo, 3s. cloth boards. 

ATLAS OF ENGRAVINGS to Illustrate the above, contain- 
ing 235 Illustrations of Mining Tools, drawn to scale. 4to, 65. cloth boards. 
"Students in the science of mining, and overmen, captains, managers, and viewers may gain 

practical knowledge and useful hints by the study of Mr. Morgans' manual." — Colliery Guardian. 
"A valuable work, which will tend materially to improve our mining Uterature." — Mining 

yournal. 

Coal Mining, 

COAL AND COAL MINING: A Rudimentary Treatise on. By 
Warington W. Smyth, M.A., F.R.S., &c., Chief Inspector of the Mines of 
the Crown. New Edition, Revised and Corrected. With numerous Illustra- 
tions. i2mo, 4s. cloth boards. 
"As an outline is given of everj- known coal-field in this and other countries, as well as of the 

principal methods of working, the book will doubtless interest a very large number of readers."— 

Mining Journal. 

Suhterraneoiis Surveying, 

SUBTERRANEOUS SURVEYING, Elementary and Practical 
Treatise on; with and without the Magnetic Needle. By Thomas Fenwick, 
Surveyor of Mines, and Thomas Baker, C.E i2mo, 3s. cloth boards. 



NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, NAVIGATION, etc. 19 

NAVAL ARCHITECTURE, NAVIGATION, etc. 



Chain Cables. 

CHAIN CABLES AND CHAINS. Comprising Sizes and 
Curves of Links, Studs, &c., Iron for Cables and Chains, Chain Cable and 
Chain Making, Forming and Welding Links, Strength of Cables and Chains, 
Certificates for Cables, Marking Cables, Prices of Chain Cables and Chains, 
Historical Notes, Acts of Parliament, Statutory Tests, Charges for Testing, 
List of Manufacturers of Cables, &c., &c. By Thomas W. Traill, F.E.R.N., 
M. Inst. C.E., the Engineer Surveyor in Chief, Board of Trade, the Inspector 
of Chain Cable and Anchor Proving Establishments, and General Superin- 
tendent, Lloyd's Committee on Proving Establishments. With numerous 
Tables, Illustrations and Lithographic Drawings. Folio, £z 2S. cloth, 
bevelled boards. 

" The author writes not only with a full acquaintance with scientific formula and details, but 
also with a profound and fully-instructed sense of the importance to the safety of our ships and 
sailors of fidelity in the manufacture of cables. We heartily recommend the book to the specialists 
to whom it is addressed." — Athe/taio?!. 

"It contains a vast amount of valuable information. Nothing seems to be wanting to make it 
a complete and standard work of reference on the subject." — Nautical Magazine. 

Focket-Booh for Naval ArcJiitects and SJiij^builclers, 

THE NAVAL ARCHITECT'S AND SHIPBUILDER'S 
POCKET-BOOK of Formulae, Rules, and Tables, and Marine Engineer's and 
Surveyor's Handy Book of Reference. By Clement Mackrow, Member of the 
Institution of Naval Architects, Naval Draughtsman. Third Edition, Re- 
vised. With numerous Diagrams, &c. Fcap., 12s. 6d. strongly bound in 
leather, 

"Should be used by all who are engaged in the construction or design of vessels. . . • Will 
be found to contain the most useful tables and formulae required by shipbuilders, carefully collected 
from the best authorities, and put together in a popular and simple form." — Eiigi}ieer. 

_" The professional shipbuilder has now, in a convenient and accessible form, reliable data for 
solving many of the numerous problems that present themselves in the course of his work." — Iron. 

"There is scarcely a subject on which a naval architect or shipbuilder can require to refresh 
his memory which will not be found within the covers of Mr. Mackrow's book." — English Mechanic. 

JPocJcet-BooJc for 3Iarine Engineers. 

A POCKET-BOOK OF USEFUL TABLES AND FOR- 
MULA FOR MARINE ENGINEERS. By Frank Proctor A.I.N.A. 
Third Edition. Royal 32mo, leather, gilt edges, with strap, 4s. 

"We recommend it to our readers as going far to supply a long-felt want."— Nava! Science. 
"A most useful companion to all marine engineers." — United Service Gazette. 

Lighthouses. 

EUROPEAN LIGHTHOUSE SYSTEMS. Being a Report of 
a Tour of Inspection made in 1873. By Major George H. Elliot, Corps of 
Engineers, U.S.A. With 51 Engravings and 31 Woodcuts. Svo, 215. cloth. 



%* The following are published in Wea'le's Rudimentary Series. 
MASTING. MAST-MAKING, AND RIGGING OF SHIPS. By 
Robert Kipping, N.A. Fifteenth Edition. i2mo, 2s. 6d. cloth boards. 

SAILS AND SAIL-MAKING. Eleventh Edition, Enlarged, with 
an Appendix. By Robert Kipping, N.A. Illustrated. i2mo, 3s. cloth boards. 

NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. By James Peake. Fifth Edition 
with Plates and Diagrams. i2mo, 4s. cloth boards. 

MARINE ENGINES AND STEAM VESSELS (A Treatise on). 
By Robert Murray, C.E., Principal Officer to the Board of Trade for the 
East Coast of Scotland District. Eighth Edition, thoroughly Revised, with 
considerable Additions, by the Author and by George Carlisle, C.E., 
Senior Surveyor to the Board of Trade at Liverpool. i2mo, 5s. cloth boards. 

PRACTICAL NAVIGATION. Consisting of the Sailor's Sea- 
Book, by James Greenwood and W. H. Rosser ; together with the requisite 
Mathematical and Nautical Tables for the Working of the Problems, by 
Henry Law, C.E., and Professor J, R.Young. lamo, 7s., half-bound 



20 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE. 



Text Book of Electricity, 

THE STUDENTS TEXT-BOOK OF ELECTRICITY. By 
Henry M. Noad, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. New Edition, carefully Revised. 
With an Introduction and Additional Chapters, by W. H. Preece, M.I.C.E., 
Vice-President of the Society of Telegraph Engineers, &c. With 470 Illustra- 
tions. Crown 8vo, 12s. 6d. cloth. 

" The original plan of this book has been carefully adhered to so as to make it a reflex of the 
existing- state of electrical science, adapted for students. . . . Discovery seems to have pro- 
gfressed with marvellous strides ; nevertheless it has now apparently ceased, and practical applica- 
tions have commenced their career ; and it is to g-ive a faithful account of these that this fresh 
edition of Dr. Noad's valuable text-book is launched forth." — Extract/rom hitrodiictioJi by IV. H. 
Preece, Esq. 

"We can recommend Dr. Noad's book for clear style, great range of subject, a good index, 
and a plethora of woodcuts. Such collections as the present are indispensable." — Atheiiceiim. 

"An admirable text-book for every student — beginner or advanced — of electricity.' — 
Engmecrhig. 

" Dr. Noad's text-book has earned for itself the reputation of a truly scientific manual for the 
student of electricity, and we gladly hail this new amended edition, which brings it once more to 
the front. Mr. Preece as reviser, with the assistance of Mr. H. R. Kempe and Mr. J. P. Edwards, 
has added all the practical results of recent invention and research to the admirable theoretical 
expositions of the author, so that the book is about as complete and advanced as it is possible for 
any book to be within the limits of a text-book." — Telegraphic journal. 

Electricity, 

A MANUAL OF ELECTRICITY : Including Galvanism, Mag- 
netism, Dia-Magnetism, Electro-Dynamics, Ma^no-Electricity, and the Electric 
TeUgraph. By Henry M. Noad, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. Fourth Edition. 
With 500 Woodcuts. 8vo, £1 4s. cloth, 

"Tke accounts given of electricity and galvanism are not only complete in a scientific sense, 
but, which is a rarer thing, are popular and interestin^j." — Lancet. 

"It is worthy of a place in the library of every public institution." — Mining Journal. 

Electric Light, 

ELECTRIC LIGHT : Its Production and Use. Embodying Plain 
Directions for the Treatment of Voltaic Batteries, Electric Lamps, and 
Dynamo-Electric Machines. By J. W. Urquhart, C.E., Author of " Electro- 
plating: A Practical Handbook." Edited by F. C. Webb, M.I.C.E., M.S.T.E. 
Second Edition, Revised, wuth large Additions and 128 Illusts. 7s. 6d. cloth. 

" The book is by far the best that we have yet met with on the subject." — Athemeuin. 

"It is the only work at present available which gives, in langTiage intelligible for the most part 
to the ©rdinary reader, a general but concise history of the means which have been adopted up to 
the present time in producing the electric light." — Metropolitan. 

Electric Lighting, 

THE ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRIC LIGHT- 
ING. By Alan A. Campbell Swinton, Associate S.T.E. Crown 8vo, 
IS. 6d., cloth. [Just published. 

"As a stepping-stone to treatises of a more advanced nature, this Utt'e work will be found 
most eflacient." — Bookseller. 

"Anyone who desires a short and thoroughly clear exposition of the elementary principles of 
electric-lighting cannot do better than read this little work." — Bradford Observer. 

Dr, Lar dual's School Handbooks, 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY FOR SCHOOLS. By Dr. Lardner. 

328 Illustrations. Sixth Edition. One Vol., 3s. dd. cloth. 

"A very convenient class-book for junior students in private schools. It is intended to convey. 
In clear and precise terms, general notions of all the principal divisions of Physical Science." — 
British Quarter ly Review. 

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY FOR SCHOOLS. By Dr. Lardner. 

With 190 Illustrations. Second Edition. One Vol., 3s. 6d. cloth. 
" Clearly written, weU arranged, and excellently illustrated." — Gardener's Chronicle. 

,Dr, Lardner' s Electric Telegraph, 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. By Dr. Lardner. Re- 
vised and Re-written by E. B. Bright, F.R.A.S, 140 Illustrations. Small 
8vo, 2S. M. cloth. 
-^' One of the most readable books extant on the Electric Telegraph."— £';?^/<j/j Mechanic. 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE. 21 



Storms, 

STORMS : Their Nature, Classification, and Laws; with the Means 
of Predicting them by their Embodiments, the Clouds. By William 
Blasius. With Coloured Plates and numerous Wood Engravings. Crown 
8vo, 105. 6d. cloth. 
" A useful repository to meteorologists in the study of atmospherical disturbances. Will repay 
perusal as being^ the production of one who gives evidence of acute observation." — Nature. 

Tlie Blowpipe, 

THE BLOWPIPE IN CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY, AND 
GEOLOGY. Containing all known Methods of Anhydrous Analysis, many 
Working Examples, and Instructions for Making Apparatus. By Lieut.- 
Colonel W. A. Ross, R.A., F.G.S. With 120 Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 
3s. 6d. cloth, 

"The student who gfoes conscientiously through the course of experimentation here laid down 
will g^in a better insight into inorganic chemistry and mineralogy than if he had 'got up' any of 
the best text-books oi the day, and passea any number of examinations." — Chemical A'ews. 

TJie Military Sciences, 

AIDE-MEMOIRE TO THE MILITARY SCIENCES. Framed 
from Contributions of Officers and others connected with the different Ser- 
vices. Originally edited by a Committee of the Corps of Royal Enginee-rs. 
Second Edition, most carefully revised by an Officer of the Corps, with many 
Additions; containing nearly 350 Engravings and many hundred Woodcuts. 
Three Vols., royal 8vo, extra cloth boards, and lettered, £4 los. 
"A compendious encyclopaedia of military knowledge, to which we are greatly indebted."— 

Edi7ihur^h Revieiu. 

" The most comprehensive work of reference to the military and collateral sciences.' — Voluti- 

teer Service Gazette. 

Field Fortification, 

A TREATISE ON FIELD FORTIFICATION, THE ATTACK 
OF FORTRESSES, MILITARY MINING, AND RECONNOITRING. By 
Colonel I. S. Macaulay, late Professor of Fortification in the R.M.A., Wool- 
wich. Sixth Edition, crown Svo, cloth, with separate Atlas of 12 Plates, 12s. 

Conchologij, 

MANUAL OF THE MOLLUSC A : A Treatise on Recent and 
Fossil Shells. By Dr. S. P. Woodward, A.L.S. With Appendix by Ralph 
Tate, A.L.S., F.G.S. With numerous Plates and 300 Woodcuts. Cloth 
boards, ys. 6d. 

"A most valuable storehouse of conchological and geological information."— Haniwicie's 
Scieiice Gossip. 

Astronomy, 

ASTRONOMY. By the late Rev. Robert Main, M.A., F.R.S., 
formerly Radcliffe Observer at Oxford. Third Edition, Revised and Cor- 
rected to the present time, by William Thynne Lynn, B. A., F.R. A.S., formerly 
of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. i2mo, 2s. cloth limp. 

" .\ sound and simple treatise, carefully edited, and a capital book for beginners."— ATno-wleei^'e. 

"Accurately brought down to the require.-nents of the present iirae."— Educational Times. 

Geology, 

RUDIMENTARY TREATISE ON GEOLOGY, PHYSICAL 
AND HISTORICAL. Consisting of " Physical Geology," which sets forth 
the leading Principles of the Science ; and " Historical Geology," which 
treats of the Mineral and Organic Conditions of the Earth at each successive 
epoch, especial reference being made to the British Series of Rocks. By 
Ralph Tate, A.L.S., F.G.S., &c., &c. With 250 Illustrations, i2mo, 5s. 
cloth boards. 

" The fulness of the matter has elevated the book into a manual. Its information is exhaustive 
and well arranged." — School Board Chronicle. 

Geology and Genesis, 

THE TWIN RECORDS OF CREATION; or, Geology and 
Genesis: their Perfect Harmony and Wonderful Concord. By George W, 
Victor le Vaux. Numerous Illustrations. Fcap. Svo, 5s. cloth. 
" A valuable contribution to the evidences of revelation, and disposes very conclusively of the 

arguments of those who would set God's Works against God's Word. No real difficulty is shirked, 

and no sophistry is left unexposed."— T/ze Roc^. 



22 CROSBY LOCKWOOD &- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

Dr. LARDNER'S HANDBOOKS of NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 

\* The following five volumes, though each is complete in itself, and to be pur- 
chased separately, form A Complete Course of Natural Philosophy. The 
style is studiously popular. It has been the author's aim to supply Manuals for the 
Student, the Engineer, the A rtisan, and the superior classes in Schools. 

THE HANDBOOK OF MECHANICS. Enlarged and almost re- 
written by Benjamin Loewy, F.R.A.S. With 378 Illustrations. Post 8vo, 
6s. cloth. 

"The perspicuity of the origfinal has been retained, and chapters which had become obsolete 
have been replaced by others of more rriodern character. The explanations throughout are 
studiously popular, and care has been taken to show the application of the various branches of 
physics to the industrial arts, and to the practical business of lite." — Mining yoiiryial. 

"Mr. Loewy has carefully revised the book, and brought it up to modern requirements." — 
Nature. 

" Natural philosophy has had few exponents more able or better skilled in the art of popu- 
larising the subject than Dr. Lardner ; and Mr. Loewy is doing good service in fitting this treatise, 
and the others of the series, for use at the present time." — Scotsman. 

THE HANDBOOK OF HYDROSTATICS AND PNEUMATICS. 
New Edition, Revised and Enlarged, by Benjamin Loewy, F.R.A.S. With 
236 Illustrations. Post 8vo, 5s. cloth. 

"For those 'who desire to attain an accurate knowledge of physical science without the pro- 
found methods of mathematical investigation,' this work is not merely intended, but veil adapted.'' 
— Chemical News. 

" The volume before us has been carefully edited, augmented to nearly twice the bulk of the 
former edition, and all the most recent matter has been added. . . . It is a valuable text-book." 

— Nature. 

"Candidates for pass examinations will find it, w-e think, specially suited to their requirements." 

English Mechayiic. 

THE HANDBOOK OF HEAT. Edited and almost entirely re- 
written by Benjamin Loewy, F.R.A.S., (S;c. 117 Illustrations. Post 8vo, 6s. 
cloth. 

" The style is always clear and precise, and conveys instruction without leaving any cloudiness 
or lurking doubts behind." — Engiyieering. 

"A most exhaustive book on the subject on which it treats, and is so arranged that it can be 

understood by all who desire to attain an accurate knowledge of physical science Mr. 

Loewy has included all the latest discoveries in the varied laws and effects of heat." — Stajidard. 

"A complete and handy text-book for the use of students and general xq3.&qxs."— English 
Mechanic. 

THE HANDBOOK OF OPTICS. By Dionysius Lardner,D.C.L., 
formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in University 
College, London. New Edition. Edited byT. Olver Harding, B.A. Lond., 
of University College, London. With 298 Illustrations. Small 8vo, 448 
pages, 5s. cloth. 

"Written by one of the ablest English scientific writers, beautifully and elaborately illustrated. 
Mechanics' Magazijie. 

THE HANDBOOK OF ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM, AND 
.^COC/Sr/CS. By Dr. Lardner. Ninth Thousand. Edit, by George Carey 
Foster, B.A., F.C.S. With 400 Illustrations. Small 8vo, 5s. cloth. 
" The book could not have been entrusted to anyone better calculated to preserve the terse and 

lucid style of Lardner, while correcting his errors aiid bringing up his work to the present state ot 

scientific knowledge." — Popidar Scie^tce Review. 

Dr, Lardner's Handbook of Astronomy, 

THE HANDBOOK OF ASTRONOMY. Forming a Companion 
to the " Handbook of Natural Philosophy.'' By Dionysius Lardner, D.C.L., 
formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in University 
College, London. Fourth Edition. Revised and Edited by Edwin Dunkin, 
F.R.A.S., Royal Observatory, Greenwich. With 38 Plates and upwards of 
100 Woodcuts. In One Vol., small 8vo, 550 pages, gs. 6d. cloth. 

" Probably no other book contains the same amount of information in so compendious and well- 
arranged a form— certainly none at the price at which this is offered to the puhWc'—jlthejiczion. 

"We can do no other than pronounce this work a most valuable manual of astronomy, and we 
strongly recommend it to all who wish to acquire a general — but at the same time correct — acquaint- 
ance with this sublhne science." — Quarterly yournal of Science. 

"One of the most deservedly popular books on the subject . . . We would recommend not 
only the student of the elementary principles of the science, but he who aims at mastering the 
higher and mathematical branches of astronomy, not to be without this work beside him."— J^racii- 
cal Magazitie, 



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE. 23 



DR. LARDNER'S MUSEUM OF SC IENCE AND ART. 

THE MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND ART. Edited by 
DiONYSius Lardner, D.C.L., formerlv Professor of Natural Philosophy and 
Astronomy in University College, London. With upwards of 1,200 Engrav- 
ings on Wood. In 6 Double Volumes, £1 is., in a new and elegant cloth bind- 
ing ; or handsomely bound in half-morocco, 31s. 6d. 

Contents : 
The Planets: Are they Inhabited Worlds?— : motive — Thermometer — New Planets : Le- 
«;Veather Prognostics — Popular Fallacies in | verrier and Adams's Planet— Magnitude and 



Questions of Physical Science — Latitudes and 
J-ong-itudes — Lunar Influences — Meteoric 
Stones and Shooting Stars — Railway Accidents 
—Light— Common Things : Air — Locomotion 



Minuteness— Common Things : The Almanack 
—Optical Images— How to observe the Heavens 
— Common Things : The Looking-glass — 
Stellar Universe— The Tides— Colour— Corn- 



in the United States— Cometary Influences— ! mon Things : Man— Magnifying Glasses— In- 



stinct and Intelligence— The Solar Microscope 
—The Camera Lucida— The Magic L-antern— 
The Camera Obscura— The Microscope— The 
AVhite Ants: Their Manners and Habits— The 
Surface of the Earth, or First Notions ot 
Geography— Science and Poetry— The Bee- 
Steam Navigation — Electro-Motive Power — 
Thunder, Lightning, and the Aurora Boreahs 
—The Printing Press— The Crust of the Earth 
—Comets— The Stereoscope— The Pre-Ada- 
mite Earth— Eclipses— Sound, 



Common Things : Water — The Potter's Art — 
■Common Tilings : Fire — Locomotion and 
"Transport, their Influence and Progress — The 
Moon — Common Things: The Earth — The 
Electric Telegraph — Terrestrial Heat — The 
Sun— Earthquakes and Volcanoes — Barometer, 
Safety Lamp, and Whitworth's Micrometric 
Apparatus — Steam — The Steam Engine — The 
Eye — The Atmosphere — Time — Common 
Things: Pumps — Common Things : Spectacles, 
(the Kaleidoscope — Clocks and Watches — 
Microscopic Drawing and Engraving— Loco- 

Opinions of the Press, 

"This series, besides affording popular but sound instruction on scientific subjects, with which 
the humblest man in the Country ought to be acquainted, also undertakes that teaching of 'Com- 
mon Things ' which every well-wisher of his kind is anxious to promote. Many thousand copies of 
this serviceable publication have been printed, in the belief and hope that the desire for instruction 
•and improvement widely prevails ; and we have no fear that such enlightened faith will meet with 
■disappointment." — Times. 

" A cheap and interesting publication, alike informing and attractive. The papers combine 
subjects of importance and great scientific knowledge, considerable inductive powers, and a 
popular style of treatment." — Spectator. 

"The 'Museum of Science and Art' is the most valuable contribution that has ever been 
.made to the Scientific Instruction oi every class of society."— Sir DAVID BREWSTER, in the 
North British Review. 

" Whether we consider the liberality and beauty of the illustrations, the charm of the wTiting, 
or the durable interest of the matter, we must express our belief that there is hardly to be found 
.among the new books one that would be welcomed by people of so many ages and classes as a 
valuable present." — Examiner. 

%* Separate boohs formed from the above, suitable for Workmen's Libraries, 

Science Classes, &c. 

Common Things Explained. Containing Air, Earth, Fire, Water, Time, 
Man, the Eye, Locomotion, Colour, Clocks and Watches, &c. 233 Illus- 
trations, cloth gilt, 5s. 

The Microscope. Containing Optical Images, Magnifying Glasses, Origin 
and Description of the Microscope, Microscopic Objects, the Solar Micro- 
scope, Microscopic Drawing and Engraving, &c. 147 Illustrations, clotb 
gilt, 2S. 

Popular Geology. Containing Earthquakes and Volcanoes, the Crust of 
the Earth, &c. 201 Illustrations, cloth gilt, 2S. td. 

Pointlar Physics. Containing Magnitude and Minuteness the Atmo- 
sphere, Meteoric Stones, Popular Fallacies, Weather Prognostics, the 
Thermometer, the Barometer, Sound, &c. 85 Illustrations, cloth gilt, 2s. bd. 

Steam and its Uses. Including the Steam Engine, the Locomotive, and 
Steam Navigation. 89 Illustrations, cloth gilt, 25. 

PopnJar Astronomy. Containing How to observe the Heavens— The 
Earth, Sun, Moon, Planets, Light, Comets, Eclipses, Astronomical Influ- 
ences, &c. 182 Illustrations, 4s. 6d. 

The Bee and White Ants : Their Manners and Habits. With Illustra- 
tions of Animal Instinct and Intelligence. 135 Illustrations, cloth gilt, 2S. 

The Electric Telegraph Pointlarised. To render intelligible to all who 
can Read, irrespective of any previous Scientific Acquirements, the various 
forms of Telegraphy in Actual Operation. 100 Illustrations, cloth gilt, 
cs. 6d. 



24 CROSBY LOCK WOOD &• SON'S CATALOGUE. 



MATHEMATICS, GEOMETRY, TABLES, etc. 

Practical MafJieniatics, 

MATHEMATICS FOR PRACTICAL MEN. Being a Com- 
mon-place Book of Pure and Mixed Mathematics. Designed chiefly for the 
Use of Civil Engineers, Architects and Surveyors. By Olinthus Greg- 
ory, LL.D., F.R.A.S., Enlarged by Henry Law, C.E. 4th Edition, care- 
fully Revised by J. R. Young, formerly Professor of Mathematics, Belfast 
College. With 13 Plates, 8vo, £1 is. cloth. 

" The engineer or architect will here find ready to his hand rules for solving nearly every 
mathematical difficulty that may arise in his practice. The rules are in all cases explained by 
means of examples, in which every step of the process is clearly worked out." — Builder. 

" One of the most serviceable books for practical mechanics. . . . It is an instructive book 
for the student, and a Text-book for him who, having once mastered the subjects it treats of, 
needs occasionally to refresh his memory upon th&m."— Building- News. 

Metrical Units and Systeins, etc, 

MODERN METROLOGY : A Manual of the Metrical Unih 
and Systems of the Present Century. With an Appendix containing a proposed 
English System. By Lowis D'A. Jackson, A.M. Inst. C.E., Author of " Aid 
to Survey Practice," &c. Large crown 8vo, 12s. 6d. cloth. 

"The author has brought together much valuable and interesting information. . . . We 
cannot but recommend the work to the consideration of all interested in the practical reform of cur 
weights and measures." — Natii7-e. 

"For exhaustive tables of equivalent weights and measures of all sorts, and lor clear demonstra- 
tions of the effects of the various systems that have been proposed or adopted, Mr. Jackson's 
treatise is without a rival." — Academy. 

TJie Metric System, 

A SERIES OF METRIC TABLES, in which the British Stand- 
ard Meas^tres and Weights arc compared with those 0/ the Metric System at present 
in Use on the Continent. By C. H. Dowling, C.E. 8vo, ios. 6d. strongly bound. 
"Their accuracy has been certified by Professor Airy, the Astronomer-Royal." — Builder. 
"Mr. Bowling's Tables are well put together as a ready-reckoner for the conversion of one 
system into the other." — Athenceuni 

Geometry for the Architect, Engineer , etc, 

PRACTICAL GEOMETRY, for the Architect, Engineer and 
Mechanic. Giving Rules for the Delineation and Application of varioas 
Geometrical Lines, Figures and Curves. By E. W. Tarn, M.A., Architect, 
Author of "The Science of Building," &c. Second Edition. With Appen- 
dices on Diagrams of Strains and Isometrical Projection. With 172 Illus- 
trations, demy 8vo, gs. cloth, 

" No book with the same objects in view has ever been published in which the clearness of the 
rules laid down and the illustrative diagrams have been so satisfactory." — Scotstnatt. 

"This is a manual for the practical man, whether architect, engineer, or mechanic. . . . The 
object of the author being to avoid all abstruse formulae or complicated methods, and to enable 
persons with but a moderate knowledge of geometry to work out the problems required," — English 
.M echanic. 

The Science of Geometry, 

THE GEOMETRY OF COMPASSES ; or. Problems Resolved 
by the mere Description of Circles and the use of Coloured Diagrams anci 
Symbols. By Oliver Byrne. Coloured Plates. Crown 8vo, 3s, 6d. cloth. 

" The treatise is a good one, and remarkable — like all Mr. ByrKe's contributions to the science 
of geometry- — for the lucid character of its teaching." — Building i\'e-ws. 

Iron and 3Ietal Trades' Calculator, 

THE IRON AND METAL TRADES' COMPANION. For 
expeditiously ascertaining the Value of any Goods bought or sold by Weight, 
from IS. per cwt. to 112s. per cwt., and from one farthing per pound to one 
shilling per pound. Each Table extends from one pound to 100 tons. To 
which are appended Rules on Decimals, Square and Cube Root, Mensuration 
of Superficies and Solids, &c. ; Tables of Weights of Materials, and other 
Useful Memoranda. By Thos. Downie. 396 pp., gs. Strongly bound leather.. 
" A most useful set of tables, and w-ill supply a want, for nothing like them before existed." — 

Building A'cTis. 

"Although specially adapted to the iron and metal trades, the tables will be found useful in 

every other business in which merchandise is bought and sold bj' weight." — Railway Nems. 



MATHEMATICS, GEOMETRY, TABLES, etc. 



Calmilator for Numbers and Weights Combined, 

THE COMBINED NUMBER AND WEIGHT CALCU- 
LA TOR. Containing upwards of 250,000 Separate Calculations, showing at 
a glance the value at 421 difterent rates, ranging from ^'^th of a Penny to 20s. 
each, or per cwt., and £20 per ton, ol any number of articles consecutively,, 
from I to 470. — Any number of cwts., qrs., and lbs., from i cwt. to 470 cvvts. — 
Any number of tons, cwts., qrs., and lbs., from i to 235 tons. By Willia\3 
Chadwick, Public Accountant. Imp. bvo, 30s., strongly bound. 
KS" This comprehensive and entirely unique and original Calculator is adapted 
for the use of Accountants and Auditors, Railway Companies, Canal Companies, 
Shippers, Shipping Agents, General Carriers, &c. 

Ironfounders, Brassfounders, Metal Merchants, Iron Manufacturers, Iron- 
mongers, Engineers, Machinists, Boiler Makers, Millwrights, Roofing, Bridge and 
Girder Makers, Colliery Proprietors, &c. 

Timber Merchants, Builders, Contractors, Architects, Surveyors, Auctioneers,. 
Valuers, Brokers, Mill Owners and Manufacturers, Mill Furnishers, Merchants ami 
General Wholesale Tradesmen. 

%* Opinions of the Press. 
"The book contains the answers to questions, and not simply a set of ingenious puzzle 
methods of arriving- at results. It is as easy of reference for any answer or any number ot answers 
as a dictionary, and the references are even more quickly made. For making up accounts or esti- 
mates, the book must prove invaluable to all who have any considerable quantity of calculations 
involving price and measure in any combination to do." — Engineer. 

" The most complete and practical ready reckoner which it has been our fortune yet to see. 
It is difficult to imagine a trade or occupation in which it could not be of the greatest use, either 
in saving human labour or in checking work. The publishers have placed within the reach of 
every commercial man an invaluable and unfailing assistant." — T/ie Miller. 

Comprehensive Weight Calculator, 

THE WEIGHT CALCULATOR. Being a Series of Tables 

upon a New and Comprehensive Plan, exhibiting at One Reference the exaci 
Value of any Weight from i lb. to 15 tons, at 300 Progressive Rates, from irf. 
to i68s. per cwt., and containing 186,000 Direct Answers, which, with their 
Combinations, consisting of a single addition (mostly to be performed at 
sight), will afford an aggregate of 10,266,000 Answers ; the whole being calcu- 
lated and designed to ensure correctness and promote despatch. _ By Henry 
Harben, Accountant. An entirely New Edition, carefully Revised. Royal 
8vo, strongly half-bound, £1 5s. 
" Of priceless value to business men. Its accuracy and completeness have secured for it a 

reputation which renders it quite unnecessary for us to say one word in its praise. It is a necessary 

book in all mercantile offices." — Sheffield Independent. 

Comprehensive Discount Guide, 

THE DISCOUNT GUIDE. Comprising several Series of 
Tables for the use of Merchants, Manufacturers, Ironmongers, and others, 
by which may be ascertained the exact Profit arising from any mode of using 
Discounts, either in the Purchase or Sale of Goods, and the method of either 
Altering a Rate of Discount or Advancing a Price, so as to produce, by one 
operation, a sum that will realise any required profit after allowing one or 
more Discounts : to which are added Tables of Profit or Advance from i\ to 
90 per cent., Tables of Discount from i\ to gSf per cent., and Tables of Cora- 
mission, &c., from \ to 10 per cent. By Henry Harben, Accountant, Author 
of " The Weight Calculator." New Edition, carefully Revised and Corrected, 
Demy 8vo, 544 pp. half-bound, £1 5s. 

" A book such as this can only be appreciated by business men, to whom the saving of time 
means saving of money. We have the high authority of Professor J. R. Young that the tables 
throughout the work are constructed upon strictly accurate principles. The work must prove 
of great value to merchants, manufacturers, and general traders." — BriCish Trade yournal 

Iron Shipbuilders' and Iron 3Ierchants' Tables, 

IRON -PLATE WEIGHT TABLES: For Iron Shipbuilders., 
Engineers and Iron Merchants. Containing the Calculated Weights of up- 
wards of 150,000 different sizes of Iron Plates, from i foot by 6 in. by \ in. to 
10 feet by 5 feet by i in. Worked out on the basis of 40 lbs. to the square 
foot of Iron of i inch in thickness. Carefully compiled and thoroughly Re- 
vised by H. BuRLiNSON and W. H. Simpson. Oblong 4to, 25s. halt-bound. 
"This work will be found of great utility. The autliors have had much practical experience 

of what is wanting in making estimates; and the use of the book will save much time in making 

elaborate calculations." — English Mechanic. 



26 CROSBY LOCK WOOD &- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS. 



iSoap-inalcinf/, 

THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING : A Practical Handbook of the 
Manufacture of Hard and Soft Soaps, Toilet Soaps, &c. Including many New 
Processes, and a Chapter on the Recovery of Glycerine from Waste Leys. 
By Alexander Watt, Author of " Electro-Metallurgy Practically Treated," 
&c. With numerous Illustrations. Second Edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, 
gs. cloth. 
"The work will prove very useful, not merely to the technological student, but to the practical 

€Oapboiler who wishes to understand the theory of his art." — Che??iical Neius. 

"It is really an excellent example of a technical manual, entering, as it does, thoroughly and 

exhaustively both into the theory and practice of soap manufacture." — Kncrwledge. 

"Mr. Watt's book is a thoroughly practical treatise on an art which has almost no literature in 

■our language We congratulate the author on the success of his endeavour to fill a void in English 

technical literature." — A ature. 

Leather 3Ian\ifacture, 

THE ART OF LEATHER MANUFACTURE. Being a 
Practical Handbook, in which the Operations of Tanning, Currying, and 
Leather Dressing are fully Described, and the Principles of Tanning Ex- 
plained, and many Recent Processes introduced; as also Methods for the 
Estimation of Tannin, and a Description of the Arts of Glue Boiling, Gut 
Dressing, &c. By Alexander Watt, Author of " Soap-Making," " Electro- 
Metallurgy," &c. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 12s. 6d. cloth. 

"Mr. Watt has rendered an important service to the trade, and no less to the student of 
ttechnologj'." — Chemical Neivs. 

"A sound, comprehensive treatise. The book is an eminently valuable production which re- 
<lounds to the credit of both author and publishers." — Cheinical Hez'ieiv. 

"This volume is technical without being tedious, comprehensive and complete without being 
prosy, and it bears on every page the impress of a master hand. We have never come across a 
fbetter trade treatise, nor one that so thoroughly supplied an absolute want.' — Shoe and Leather 
Trades' Chronicle. 

Soot and Shoe 3Ia7£ing. 

THE ART OF BOOT AND SHOE-MAKING. A Practical 
Handbook, including Measurement, Last-Fitting, Cutting-Out, Closing and 
Making, with a Description of the most approved Machinery employed. 
By John B. Lend, late Editor of St. Crispin, and The Boot and Shoe-Maker. 
With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 5s. cloth. 

" This excellent treatise is by far the best work ever written on the subject. A new work, 
.embracing all modern improvements, was much wanted. This want is now satisfied. The chapter 
•on clicking, which shows how waste may be prevented, will save fifty times the price of the book." 
— Scottish Leather Trader. 

Dentistry, 

MECHANICAL DENTISTRY : A Practical Treatise on the 
Construction of the various kinds of Artificial Dentures. Comprising also Use- 
ful Formulae, Tables and Receipts for Gold Plate, Clasps, Solders, &c. &c. 
By Charles Hunter, Second Edition, Revised. With upwards of 100 
Wood Engravings. Crown Svo, js. 6d. cloth. 

"We can strongly recommend Mr. Hunter's treatise to all students preparing for the profession 
of dentistry, as well as to every mechanical dentist.' — Dublin journal of Medical Science. 

" A work in a concise form that few could read without gaining information from." — British 
^02(rnal of Dental Science. 

Jyreiving, 

A HANDBOOK FOR YOUNG BREWERS. By Herbert 

Edwards Wright, B.A. Crown Svo, 3s. 6d. cloth. 

" This little volume, containing such a large amount of good sense in so small a compass, ought 
to recommend itself to every brev/ery pupil, and many who have passed that stage." — Brewers' 
Gnardiaji, 

"The book is very clearly written, and the author has successfully brought his scientific know- 
.tedge to bear upon the various processes and details of brewing." — Brewer. 

Wood Engraving, 

A PRACTICAL MANUAL OF WOOD ENGRAVING. With 
a Brief Account of the History of the Art. By William Norman Brown. 
With numerous Illustrations. Crown Svo, 2S. cloth. 

" The author deals with the subject in a thoroughly practical and easy series of representative 
iessons." — Paper and Printing Trades' journal. 



INDUSTRIAL AND USEFUL ARTS. 27 

Electrolysis of Gold, Silver, Copper, &c, 

ELECTRO-DEPOSITION : A Practical Treatise on the Electrolysis 
of Gold, Silver, Copper, Nickel, and other Metals and Alloys. With descrip- 
tions of Voltaic Batteries, Magnets and Dynamo-Electric Machines, Ther- 
mopiles, and of the Materials and Processes used in every Department ot 
the Art, and several Chapters on ELECTRO-METALLURGY. By Alex- 
ander Watt, Author of "Electro-Metallurgy," "The Art of Soapmaking." 
&c. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 12s. 6d., cloth. 
"Evidently written by a practical man who has spent a long- period of time in electro-plate 
workshops. The information given respecting the details of workshop manipulation is remarkably 
complete. . . . Mr. Watt's book will prove of great value to electro-depositors, jewellers, and 
various other workers in metal." — Nature. 

"Eminently a book for the practical worker in electro-deposition. It contains minute and 
practical descriptions of methods, processes and materials as actually pursued and used in the 
workshop. Mr. Watt's book recommends itself to all interested in its subjects. — Engineer. 

"Contains an enormous quantity of practical information; and there are probably few items 
omitted which could be of any possible utility to workers in galvano-plasty. As a practical manual 
the book can be recommended to edl who wish to study the art of electro-deposition." — English 
Afechanic. 

Electroplating, etc, 

ELECTROPLATING : A Practical Handbook. By J. W. Urqu- 

HART, C.E. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 55. cloth. 

" The information given appears to be based on direct personal knowledge. . . Its science 
sound and the style is always clear." — Athenceiun, 

Electrotyping, etc, 

ELECTROTYPING : The Reproduction and Multiplication of Print- 
ing Surfaces and Works of Art by the Electro-deposition of Metals. ByJ. W. 
Urquhart, C.E. Crown 8vo, 5s. cloth. 

"The book is thoroughly practical. The reader is, therefore, conducted through the leading 
aws of electricity, then through the metals used by electrotypers, the apparatus, and the depositing 
processes, up to the linal preparation of the work." — Art Joiir)ial. 

"We can recommend this treatise, not merely to amateurs, but to those actually engaged in the 
trade." — Chemical A'etvs. 

Electro-Metallurgy, 

ELECTRO-MET A LL URGY ; Practically Treated. By Alexander 

Watt, F.R.S.S.A. Eighth Edition, Revised, with Additional Matter and 

Illustrations, including the most recent Processes. lamo, 3s. 6d. cloth boards. 

"From this book both amateur and artisan may learn everything necessary for the successful 
prosecution of electroplating;-." — Iron. 

Ooldsniiths' Work, 

THE GOLDSMITH'S HANDBOOK. By George E. Gee, 
Jeweller, &c. Third Edition, considerably Enlarged. lamo, 3s. 6d. cloth 
boards. 

"A good, sound, technical educator, and will be generally accepted as an authority. It is 
essentially a book for the workshop, and exactly fulfils the purpose intended." — Horological 
jfournal. 

"Will speedily become a standard book which few will care to be without." — yetveller ani 
Metalworker. 

Silversmiths^ WorJc, 

THE SILVERSMITH'S HANDBOOK. By George E. Gee, 
Jeweller, &c. Second Edition, Revised, with numerous Illustrations. i2mo 
3s. 6d. cloth boards. 

"The chief merit of the work is its practical character. . . The workers in the trade will 
speedily discover its merits when they sit down to study it." — English Mechanic. 

" This work forms a valuable sequel to the author's 'Goldsmith's Handbook.'" — Silversmiths' 
Trade Journal. 

*,^* The above two works together, strongly half-bound, price ys. 

Textile 3Ianufacttirers' Tables, 

UNIVERSAL TABLES OF TEXTILE STRUCTURE. 

For the use of Manufacturers in every branch of Textile Trade. By Joseph 

Edmondson. Oblong folio, strongly bound in cloth, price 7s. 6d. 

^Sf~ These Tables provide what has long been ifanted, a simple and easy means 
cf adjusting yarns to "reeds " or "setts," or to "picks " or " shots," and vice versa, 
so that fabrics may be made of varying weights or fineness, but having the same 
character and proportions. 



28 CROSBY LOCK WOOD 6- SON'S CATALOGUE. 



CHEMICAL MANUFACTURES & COMMERCE. 



T7ie Alkali Trade, Maiuifacture of Snlplmric Acid, 
etc, 

A MANUAL OF THE ALKALI TRADE, including the 
Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid, Sulphate ©f Soda, and Bleaching Powder. 
By John Lomas, Alkali Manufacturer, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and London. 
With 232 Illustrations and Working Drawings, and containing 390 pages of 
Text. Second Edition, with Additions. Super-royal 8vo, £1 los. cloth. 

*** This work provides (i) a Complete Handbook for intending Alkali and 
Sulphuric Acid Manufacturers, and for those already in the field who desire to 
improve their plant, or to become practically acquainted with the latest processes 
anddevelopments of the trade: (2) a Handy Volume which Manufacturers can 
put into the hands of their Managers and Foremen as a useful guide in their daily 
rounds of duty. 

"The author has given the fullest, most practical, and, to all concerned in the alkali trade, most 
valuable mass of information that, to our knowledge, has been published." — Engineer. 

"This book is written bj' a manufacturer for manufacturers. The working details of the most 
approved forms of apparatus are given, and these are accompanied by no less than 232 wood en- 
gravings, all of which may be used for the purposes of construction. Every step in the manufac- 
ture is very fully described in this manual, and each improvement explained. Everything whida 
tends to introduce economy into the technical details of this trade receives the fullest attention." — 

Athe7la7l77t. 

'The author is not one of those clever compilers who, on short notice, will 'read up 'any conceiv- 
^t>Ie subject, but a practical man in the best sense of the word. We find here not merely a sound 
^"d luminous explanation of the chemical principles of the trade, but a notice of numerous matters 
which have a most important bearing on the successful conduct of alkali works, but which are 
generally overlooked by even the most experienced technological authors." — Chemical Review. 

Coininercial Chemical Analysis, 

THE COMMERCIAL HANDBOOK OF CHEMICAL ANA- 
LYSIS; or, Practical Instructions for the determination of the Intrinsic or 
Commercial Value of Substances used in Manufactures, in Trades, and in the 
Arts. By A. Normandy, Editor of Rose's "Treatise on Chemical Analysis." 
New Edition, to a great extent Re-written, by Henry M. Noad, Ph.D., 
F.R.S. With numerous Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 125. 6d. cloth. 
"AVe strongly recommend this book to our readers as a guide, alike indispensable to the house- 

wfe as to the pharmaceutical practitioner." — Medical Times. 

"Essential to the analysts appointed under the new Act. The most recent results are given, 

and the work is well edited and carefully \\x\X.t.en."—x\aiure. 

Dye-Wares and Colours, 

THE MANUAL OF COLOURS AND DYE-WARES : Their 
Properties, Applications, Valuation, Impurities, and Sophistications. For the 
use of Dyers, Printers, Drysalters, Brokers, &c. By J. W. Slater. Second 
Edition, Revised and greatly Enlarged. Crown 8vo, ys. 6d. cloth. 

_ "A complete encyclopredia of the viateria tinctoria. The information given respecting each 
article is full and precise, and the methods of determining the value of articles such as these, s» 
liable to sophistication, are given with clearness, and are practical as well as valuable." — Chetnist 
and Driiggiit. 

"There is no other work which covers precisely the same ground. To students preparing 
for examinations in dyeing and printing it will prove exceedingly useful." — Chetnical Ne-ws. 

Pigments, 

THE ARTIST'S MANUAL OF PIGMENTS. Showing 
their Composition, Conditions of Permanency, Non-Permanency, and Adul- 
terations; Effects in Combination with Each Other and with Vehicles ; and 
the most Reliable Tests of Purity. Together with the Science and Arts 
Department's Examination Questions on Painting. By H. C. Standage. 
Small crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. cloth. 

" This work is indeed mttltiim-in-parx^o. and we can, with good conscience, recommend it to 
all who come in contact with pigments, whether as makers, dealers or users." — Chemical Review. 

"This manual cannot fail to be a very valuable aid to all painters who wish their work to 
endure and be of a sound character ; it is complete and comprehensive." — Spectator. 

"The author supplies a great deal of very valuable information and memoranda as to tha 
chemical qualities and artistic effect of the principal pigments used by painters." — Builder. 



AGRICULTURE, LAND MANAGEMENT, etc. 29 



AGRICULTURE, LAND MANAGEMENT, etc. 



Yoiiatt and Uuvn^s Coni2)lete Grazier. 

THE COMPLETE GRAZIER, and FARMER'S and CATTLE- 
BREEDER'S ASSISTANT. A Compendium of Husbandry; especially in 
the departments connected with the Breeding, Rearing, Feeding, and General 
Management of Stock; the Management of the Dairy, &c. With Directions 
for the Culture and Management of Grass Land, of Grain and Root Crops, 
the Arrangement of Farm Offices, the use of Implements and Machines, and 
on Draining, Irrigation, Warping, &-c. ; and the Application and Relative 
Value of Manures. By William Youatt, Esq., V.S. Twelfth Edition, En- 
larged, by Robert Scott Burn, Author of " Outlines of Modern Farming," 
" Systematic Small Farming," &c. One large 8vo Volume, 860 pp., with 244 
Illustrations, ^i is. half-bound. 
" The standard and text-book with the farmer and grazier." — Farmers' Magazine. 
"A treatise which will remain a standard work on the subject as long as British agriculture 
endures." — Mark Lane Expj-ess (First Notice). 

The book deals with all departments of agriculture, and contains an immense amount of 
yzKiable information. It is, in fact, an encyclopedia of agriculture put into readable form, and it 
is the only work equally comprehensive brought down to present date. It deserves a place in the 
library of everj' agriculturist." — Mark Lane Express (Second Notice) 

" This esteemed work is well worthy of a place in the libraries of agriculturists." — North 
British Agriciiltitrist, 

3Io(lern Farming. 

OUTLINES OF MODERN FARMING. By R. Scott Burn. 
Soils, Manures, and Crops — Farming and Farming Economy — Cattle, Sheep, 
and Horses — Management ot the Dairy, Pigs and Poultry — Utilisation ot 
Town-Sewage, Irrigation, &c. Sixth Edition. In One Vol., 1,250 pp., half- 
bound, profusely Illustrated, 12s. 

"The aim of the author has been to make his work at once comprehensive and trustworthy, 
•and in this aim he has succeeded to a degree which entitles him to nmch credit." — Mor)iiiig 
Advertiser. 

"Eminently calculated to enlighten the agricultural community on the varied subjects of 
which it treats, and hence it should find a place in every farmer's library." — City Press. 

Small Farming. 

SYSTEMATIC SMALL FARMING; or, The Lessons of my 
Farm. Being an Introduction to Modern Farm Practice for Small Farmers 
in the Culture of Crops ; The Feeding of Cattle; The Management of the 
Dairy, Poultry and Pigs ; The Keeping of Farm Work Records ; The Ensilage 
System, Construction of Silos, and other Farm Buildings; The Improve- 
ment of Neglected Farms, &c. By Robert Scott Burn, Author of " Out- 
lines of Landed Estates' Management," and " Outlines of Farm Manage- 
ment," and Editor of " The Complete Grazier." With numerous Illustrations, 
crown Svo, 6s. cloth. [just published. 

"This is the completest book of its class we have seen, and one which every amateur farmer 

■svill read with pleasure and accept as a guide." — Field. 

"Mr. Scott Burn's pages are severely practical, and the tone of the practical man is felt 

tferoughout. The book can only prove a treasure of aid and suggestion to the small farmer of 

inteUigence and energy." — British Quirlerly Review, 

.Agricultural Engineerin g. 

FARM ENGINEERING, THE COMPLETE TEXT-BOOK OF. 

Comprising Draining and Embanking; Irrigation and Water Supply ; Farm 
Roads, Fences, and Gates; Farm Buildings, their arrangement and con- 
struction, with plans and estimates ; Barn Implements and Machines; Field 
Implements and Machines; Agricultural Surveying, Levelling, &c. By Prof. 
John Scott, Editor of the Fanners' Gazette, late Professor of Agriculture 
and Rural Economy at the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, &c. &c. 
In One Vol., 1,150 pages, half-bound, with over 6co Illustrations, 12s. 
" Written with great care, as well as with knowledge and ability. The author has done his 

-ivork well ; we have found him a very trustworthy guide wherever we have tested his statements. 

The volume will be of great value to agricultural students, and we have much pleasure in recom- 

■.mending it." — Mark Lane Express. 

"For a young agriculturist we know of no handy volume so likely to be more usefully s'-'j'^ied ' 

— Bell's II 'eckly Messenger. 



30 CROSBY LOCK WOOD cS- SON 'S CATALOGUE. 

EnglisJi Agricidture, 

THE FIELDS OF GREAT BRITAIN : A Text-Book of 
Agriculture, adapted to the Syllabus of the Science and Art Department. 
For Elementary and Advanced Students. By Hugh Clements (Board of 
Trade). i8mo, 2S. 6d. cloth. 

"A most comprehensive volume, givinp; a mass of information." — A griadtur at Economist. 
"It is a long time since we have seen a book which has pleased us more, or which contains 
such a vast and useful fund of knowledge." — Educational Tunes. 

Hudson's Land Valuer's JPocJcetSooJx, 

THE LAND VALUER'S BEST ASSISTANT: Being Tables 
on a very much Improved Plan, for Calculating the Value of Estates. With 
Tables for reducing Scotch, Irish, and Provincial Customary Acres to Statute 
Measure, &c. By R. Hudson, C.E. New Edition. Royal 32mo, leather, 
elastic band, 4s. 

"This new edition includes tables for ascertaining the value of leases for any term of years ; 
and for showing how to lay out plots of ground of certain acres in forms, square, round, &c., with 
valuable rules for ascertaining the probable worth of standing timber to any amount ; and is oi 
incalculable value to the country gentleman and professional man." — Ea^vners' Journal. 

EwarVs Land Inijyrover's Pocket-JBook, 

THE LAND IMPROVER'S POCKET-BOOK OF FORMULA, 
TABLES and MEMORANDA required in any Computation relating to the 
Permanent Improvement of Landed Property. By John Ewart, Land Surveyor 
and Agricultural Engineer. Second Edition, Revised. Royal 32mo, oblong, 
leather, gilt edges, with elastic band, 4s. 
"A compendious and handy little volume." — Spectator. 

Complete AgriciUtnral Surveyor's Pocket-Book, 

THE LAND VALUER'S AND LAND IMPROVER'S COM- 
PLETE POCKET-BOOK. Consisting of the above Two Works bound to- 
gether. Leather, gilt edges, with strap, ys. 6d. 

" Hudson's book is the best ready-reckoner on matters relating to the valuation of land and 
crops, and its combination with Mr. E wart's work greatly enhances the value and usefulness of the 
atter-mentioned. . . . It is most useful as a manual for reference.' — North 0/ Etigland Farvier. 

Farm and Estate Book-keeping, 

BOOK-KEEPING FOR FARMERS & ESTATE OWNERS. 
A Practical Treatise, presenting, in Three Plans, a System adapted to all 
Classes of Farms. By Johnson M. Woodman, Chartered Accountant. Crown 
8vo, 3s, 6ri. cloth. 

" Will be found of great assistance by those who intend to commence a system of book-keep- 
ing, the author's examples being clear and explicit, 'and his explanations, while full and accurate, 
being to a large extent free from technicalities." — Live Stock Joicrnal. 

" The young farmer, land agent and surveyor will find Mr. Woodman's treatise more than 
repay its cost and study." — Building A'eTvs. 

WOODMAN'S YEARLY FARM ACCOUNT BOOK. Giving 
a Weekly Labour Account and Diary, and showing the Income and Expendi- 
ture under each Department of Crops, Live Stock, Dairy, &c. &c. With 
Valuation, Profit and Loss Account, and Balance Sheet at the end of the 
Year, and an Appendix of Forms. Folio, 7s. 6d. half-bound. 
"Contains every requisite form for keeping farm accounts readily and accurately." — Agri- 
culture. 



GARDENING, FLORICULTURE, etc. • 

Early Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables, 

THE FORCING GARDEN ; or, How to Grow Early Fruits, 
Flowers, and Vegetables. With Plans, and Estimates for Building Glass- 
houses, Pits and Frames. Containing also Original Plans for Double Glazing 
a New Methodof Growing the Gooseberry under Glass, &c. &c., and on Venti- 
lation, Protecting Vine Borders, &c. With Illustrations. By Samuel Wood. 
Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. cloth. 

" A stood book, and fairly fills a place that was in some degree vacant.' — Gardeners' MagaztJte 
" Mr. Wood's book is an original and exhaustive answer to the question ' How to Grow Early 
Fruits, Flowers and Vegetables? ' '—Land and IFater, 



GARDENING. FLORICULTURE, etc. 31 

Good Gardening, 

A PLAIN GUIDE TO GOOD GARDENING ; or, How to Grow 

Vegetables, Fruits, and Flowers. With Practical Notes on Soils, Manures, 

Seeds, Planting, Laying-out of Gardens and Grounds, &c. By S. Wood. 

Third Edition, with considerable Additions, &c., and numerous Illustrations. 

Crown 8vo, 5s. cloth. 

"A very good book, and one to be highly recommended as a practical guide." — Athenaum. 
" May be recommended to young gardeners, cottagers, and specially to amateurs, for the plain 
and trustworthy information it gives on matters too often neglected." — Gardeners' Chronicle. 

Gainful Garden in g, 

MULTUM-IN-PARVO GARDENING; or, How to make One 
Acre of Land produce £620 a-year by the Cultivation of Fruits and Vegetables 
also. How to Grow Flowers in Three Glass Houses, so as to realise £176 per 
annum clear Profit. By Samuel Wood, Author of "Good Gardening," &c. 
Fourth and cheaper Edition, Revised, with Additions. Crown 8vo, is. sewed, 

"We are bound to recommend it as not only suited to the case of the amateur and gentleman's 
gardener, but to the market grower." — Gardeners' Magazine. 

Gardening for Ladies, 

THE LADIES' MULTUM-IN-PARVO FLOWER GARDEN, 
and Amateurs^ Complete Guide, With Illustrations. By Samuel Wood, 
Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. cloth. 

"This volume contains a good deal of sound, common-sense instruction." — Florist. 
"Full of shrewd hints and useful instructions, based on a lifetime of experience." — Scotsman, ' 

JReceiiHs for Gardeners, 

GARDEN RECEIPTS. Edited by Charles W. Quin. i2mo 
IS. 6d. cloth limp. 
"A useful and handy book, containing a good deal of valuable information." — At/tenczian. 

Kitchen Gardening, 

THE KITCHEN A ND MA RKET GA RDEN. By Contributors 
to "The Garden.'' Compiled by C. W. Shaw, Editor of " Gardening Illus- 
trated." i2mo, 3s. 6d. cloth boards. 
" The most valuable compendium of kitchen and market-garden work published." — Fanner. 

Cottage Gardening, 

COTTAGE GARDENING ; or, Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables for 
Small Gardens. By E. Hobday. lamo, is. 6d. cloth limp. 
"Contains much useful information at a small charge." — Glasgow Herald. 



AUCTIONEER ING, ESTATE AGENCY, etc. 

Auctioneer's Assistant, 

THE APPRAISER, A UCTIONEER, BROKER, HOUSE AND 
ESTATE AGENT AND VALUER'S POCKET ASSISTANT,{oTtheYa.lusi- 
tion for Purchase, Sale, or Renewal of Leases, Annuities and Reversions, and 
of property generally; with Prices for Inventories, &c. By John Wheeler. 
Fifth Edition, Extended by C. Norris, Valuer, &c. Royal 32mo, 5s. cloth. 

" Contains a large quantity of varied and useful information as to the valuation for purchase, 
sale, or renewal of leases, annuities and reversions, and of property generally, with prices for 
nventories, and a guide to determine the value of interior fittings and other effects." — Builder. 

Auctioneering, 

A UCTIONEERS : Their Duties and Liabilities. By Robert 

Squibbs, Auctioneer. Demy Svo, los. 6d. cloth. 

" The position and duties of auctioneers treated compendiously and clearly." — Builder. 
"Every auctioneer ought to possess a copy of this excellent work." — Irotintanger 

How to Invest, 

HINTS FOR INVESTORS : Being an Explanation of the Mode 
of Transacting Business on the Stock Exchange. To which are added Com- 
ments on the Fluctuations and Table of Quarterly Average prices of Consols 
since 1759. Also a Copy of the London Daily Stock and Share List. By 
Walter M, Playford, Sworn Broker Crov/n Svo, 2s. cloth. 
" An invaluable guide to investors and speculators." — Bulltonist, 



32 CROSBY LOCK WOOD &- SON'S CATALOGUE. 

A Con^plete JE2)itome of the Laws of this Country, 

EVERY MAN'S OIVN LAWYER: A Handy-book of the 
Principles of Law and Equity. By A Barrister. Twenty-third Edition. 
Carefully Revised and brought down to the end of the last Session, including 
Summaries of the Latest Statute Laws. With Notes and References to the 
Authorities. Crown 8vo, price 6s. M. (saved at every consultation), strongly 
bound in cloth. 

Comprising THE RIGHTS AND WRONGS OF INDIVIDUALS— MERCANTILE AND COM- 
I.IERCIAL Law— CRIMINAL LAW— PARISH LAW— COUNTY COURT LAW— GAME AND 

Fishery Laws— Poor Men"s lawsuits— The Laws of Bankruptcy— Bets and 
wagers— cheques, bills, and notes— contracts and agreements— copyright 
—Elections and registration— Lnsurance— Libel and Slander— Marriage and 
Divorce — MERCHANT Shipping — mortgages — Settlements — Stock Exchange 
Practice— Trade Marks and Patents— Trespass— Nuisances, &c.— Transfer of 
Land, &c.— Warranty— Wills and Agreements, &c. &c. 

Opinions of the Press. 

" No En^HshniaJt oitght to be 7cithoiit this book. . . . Any person perfectly uninformed on 
legal matters, who may require sound information on unknown law points, will, by reference to this 
book, acquire the necessary information, and thus on many occasions save the expense and loss of 
time of a visit to a lawyer." — Engineer. 

" It is a complete code of English Law, written in plain language, which all can understand." — 
H'eekly Ti>}!es. 

"A useful and concise epitome of the law, compiled with considerable care." — Law Magazijie. 

" What it professes to be — a complete epitome of the laws of this country, thoroughly intelli- 
gible to non-professional readers. The book is a handy one to have in readiness when some kno'.ty 
point requires ready solution." — BeUs Li/e. 

Metropolitan Matinff Aju^eals. 

REPORTS OF APPEALS HEARD BEFORE THE COURT 
OF GENERAL ASSESSMENT SESSIONS, from the Year 1871 to 18S5. 
By Edward Rvde and Arthur Lyon Ryde. Fourth Edition, brought down 
to the Present Date, with an Introduction to the Valuation (Metropolis) Act, 
1S69, and an Appendix by Walter C. Ryde, of the Inner Temple, Barrister- 
at-Law. 8vo, 16s. cloth. 

Mouse Pro2yert}j, 

HANDBOOK OF HOUSE PROPERTY : A Popular and Practical 
Gnidc to the Purchase, Mortgage, Tenancy, and Compulsory Sale of Houses and 
Land. By E. L. Tarbuck, Architect and Surveyor. Third Edition, izmo, 
3s. 6d. cloth. 

"The advice is thoroughly practical."— Zaw Joiirnal. 

"This is a well-written and thoughtful work. AVe commend the work to the careful study of all 
fiterested in questions affecting houses and land." — Land Agents' Record. 

InwooiVs Estate Tables, 

TABLES FOR THE PURCHASING OF ESTATES, Freehold, 

Copyhold, or Leasehold; Annuities, Advozvsons, &c., and for the Renewing oi 
Leases held under Cathedral Churches, Colleges, or other Corporate bodies, 
for Terms of Years certain, and for Lives ; also for Valuing Reversionary 
Estates, Deferred Annuities, Next Presentations, &c. : togetherwith Smart's 
Five Tables of Compound Interest, and an Extension ot the same to Lower 
and Intermediate Rates. By W. Inwood. 22nd Edition, with considerable 
Additions, and new and valuable Tables of Logarithms for the more Difficult 
Computations of the Interest of Money, Discount, Annuities, &c., by M. Fedor 
Thoman, of the Societe Credit Mobilier of Paris. i2mo, 8s. cloth. 
"Those interested in tne purchase and sale of estates, and in the adjustment of compensation 

cases, as well as in transactions in annuities, life insurances, &c., will find the present edition of 

eminent sei\ice."— Engineering. 

" 'Inwood"s Tables' still maintain a most enviable reputation. The new issue has been enriched 

by large additional contributions by M. Fedor Thoman, whose carefully arranged Tables cannot 

fail to be of the utmost utility."— AJining jfournal. 

Agriciiltnral and Tenant-MigJit Valuation. 

THE AGRICULTURAL AND TENANT-RIGHT-VALUER'S 
ASSISTANT. By Tom Bright, Agricultural Surveyor, Author of "The 
Live Stock of North Devon," &c. Crown 8vo, 3s. 6d. cloth. \_Just published. 
"Full of tables and examples in connection with the valuation of tenant right, estates, labour. 

contents, and weights of timber, and farm produce of all kinds. The book is well calculated to 

assist the valuer in the discharge of his A\xty ." —Agricultural Gazette. 

J. OGDEN AND CO. LIMITED, PRINTERS, GREAT SAFFRON HILL, E.G. 



WitaW0 2^u5jitnentaix) Series. 




LONDON, 1862. 
THE PRIZE MEDAL 

Was awarded to the Publishers of 

"WEALE'S SERIES." 




A NEW LIST OF 

WEALE'S SERIES 

RUDIMENTARY SCIENTIFIC, EDUCATIONAL, 

AND CLASSICAL. 

Cotnp7-ising nearly Three Hundred and Fifiy distinct ivorks in almost every 
department of Science, Ait, and Education, reco?nfnended to the notice of Enp-jneers, 
Architects, Builders, Artisans, aftd Students zenerally, as well as to those interested 
in U or/cfnen's Libraries, Literary and Scientific Institutions, Colleges, Schools, 
Science Classes, &^c., &^c» 



" WEALE'S SERIES includes Text-Books on almost every branch of 
Science and Industry, comprising such subjects as Agriculture, Architecture 
and Building, Civil Engineering, Fine Arts, Mechanics and Mechanical 
Engineering, Physical and Chemical Science, and many miscellaneous 
Treatises. The whole are constantly undergoing revision, and new editions, 
brought up to the latest discoveries in scientific research, are constantly 
issued. The prices at which they are sold are as low as their excellence is 
assured." — American Literary Gazette. 

" Amongst the literature of technical education, Weale's Series has ever 
enjoyed a high reputation, and the additions being made by Messrs. Crosby 
LocKWOOD & Son render the series even more complete, and bring the infor- 
mation upon the several subjects down to the present time." — Mining 
Jo'drncd. 

" It is not too much to say that no books have ever proved more populai 
with, or more useful to, young engineers and others than the excellent 
treatises comprised in Weale's Series." — Engineer. 

"The excellence of Weale's Series is now so well appreciated, that it 
would be wasting our space to enlarge upon their general usefulness and 
value." — Builder. 

" WEALE'S SERIES has become a standard as well as an unrivalled 
collection of treatises in all branches of art and science." — Public Opinion. 




PHILADELPHIA, 1873. 
THE PRIZE MEDAL 

Was awarded to the Publishers for 

Sooks : Rudimentary, EcientiSc, 

"WEALE'S SERIES," ETO. 




CROSBY LOCKWOOD ^ SON, 

7, stationers' HALL COURT, LUDGATE HILL, LONDON, D.C. 



WEALE S RUDIMENTARY SERIES. 



WE ALE'S EUDIMENTARY SCIENTIFIC SEHIES. 




%* The volumes of this Series are freely Illustrated with 
Woodcuts, or otherwise, where requisite. Throughout the fol- 
lowing List it must be understood that the books are bound in 
limp cloth, unless otherwise stated ; but the volumes marked 
tvitk a % may also be had strongly bound t'n cloth boards fordd. 
extra. 

IV. B. — In ordertJig from this List it is recommended, as a 
means of facilitatini; business and obviatijtg error, to quote the 
nujnbe?-s affixed to the volumes, as well as the titles and prices. 



ENGINEERING, SURVEYING, ETC. 



CIVIL 

No. 

31. WELLS AND WELL-SINIUNG. By John Geo. Swindell, 

A.R.I.B.A., and G. R. Burnell, C.E. Revised Edition, With a New 
Appendix on the Qualities of Water. Illustrated. 2s. 

35. THE BLASTING AND QUARRYING OF STONE, for 

Building and other Purposes. With Remarks on the Blowing up of Bridges. 
By Gen. Sir John Burgoyne, Bart., K.C.B. Illustrated, is. 6d. 

43. TUBULAR, AND OTHER IRON GIRDER BRIDGES, ^^r- 

ticularly describing the Britannia and Conway Tubular Bridges. By G. 
Drysdale Dempsey, C.E. Fourth Edition. 2s. 

44. FOUNDATION'S AND CONCRETE WORKS, with Practical 

Remarks on Footings, Sand, Concrete, Beton, Pile-driving, Caissons, and 
Cofferdams, &c. By E. Dobson. Fifth Edition, is. 6d. 

60. LAND AND ENGINEERING SURVEYING. By T. Baker, 

C.E. New Edition, revised by Edward Nugent, C.E. 2s. t 
80*. EMBANKING LANDS FROM THE SEA. With examples 
and Particulars of actual Embankments, &c. By J. Wiggins, F.G.S. 2s. 
81. WATER WORKS, for the Supply of Cities and Towns. With 
a Description of the Principal Geological Formations of England as in- 
fluencing Supplies of Water ; and Details of Engines and Pumping Machinery 
for raising Water. By Samuel Hughes, F.G.S., C.E. New Edition. 4s. t 

118. CIVIL ENGINEERING IN NORTH AAIERICA, a Sketch 
of. By David Stevenson, F.R.S.E., &c. Plates and Diagrams. 3s. 

F67. IRON BRIDGES, GIRDERS, ROOFS, AND OTHER 
WORKS. By Francis Campin, C.E. 2s. 6d.t 

197. ROADS AND STREETS {THE CONSTRUCTION OF). 
By Henry Law, C.E., revised and enlarged by D. K. Clark, C.E., including 
pavements of Stone, Wood, Asphalte, &c. 4s. 6d.t 

203. SANITARY WORK IN THE SMALLER TOWNS AND IN 
VILLAGES. By C. Slagg, A.M.I.C.E. Revised Edition. 3s.± 

212. GAS-WORKS, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGE- 

JSIENT; and the Manufacture and Distribution of Coal Gas. Originally 
written by Samuel Hughes, C.E. Re-written and enlarged by William 
Richards, C.E. Seventh Edition, with important additions, 5s. od.J 

213. PIONEER ENGINEERING. A Treatise on the Engineering 

Operations connected with the Settlement of Waste Lands in New Coun- 
tries. By Edward Dobson, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 4s. 6d.+ 
216. MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION ; A Theoretical and 
Practical Treatise on the Strains, Designing, and Erection of Works of Con- 
struction. By Francis Campin, C.E. Second Edition, revised. 3s. t 

219. CIVIL ENGINEERING. By Henry Law, ]M.Inst. C.E. 
Including Hydraulic Engineering by Geo. R. Burnell, M.Inst. C.E. 
Seventh Edition, revised, with large additions by D. Kinnear Clark, 
M.Inst. C.E. 6s. 6d., Cloth boards, 7s. 6d. 

The X indicates that these vols, may be had strongly bound at (id. extra. 



l>ONDON : CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND SON, 



weale's rudimentary series. 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, ETC. 

33. CRANES, the Construction of, and other ^Machinery for Raising 

Heavy Bodies. By Joseph Glynn, F.R.S. Illustrated, is, 6d. 

34. THE STEAM ENGINE. By Dr. Lardner. Illustrated, is. 6d. 

59. STEAM BOILERS : their Construction and Management. By 
R. Armstrong, C.E. Illustrated, is. 6d. 

82. THE POWER OF WATER, as applied to drive Flour MiUs, 

and to arive motion to Turbines, &c. By Joseph Glynn, F.R.S. 2s4 
98. PRACTICAL MECHANISM, the Elements of; and Machine 

Tools. By T. Baker, C.E. With Additions by J. Nasmyth, C.E. 2s. 6d.i 
139. THE STEAM ENGINE, a Treatise on the IMathematical Theory 

of, with Rules and Examples for Practical Men. ByT, Baker, C.E. is. 6d, 
{64. MODERN WORKSHOP PRACTICE, as applied to Steam 

Engines, Bridges, Cranes, Ship-building, &c. By J. G. Winton. 3s. J 
{65. IRON AND HEAT, exhibiting the Principles concerned in the 

Construction of Iron Beams, Pillars, and Girders. By J. Armour. 2S. 6d.t 
166. POWER IN MOTION : Horse-Power, Toothed-Wheel Gearing, 

Long and Short Driving Bands, and Angular Forces. By J. Armour, 2s.6d.} 

171. THE WORKMAN'S MANUAL OF ENGINEERING 

DRAWING. ByJ. Maxton. 6th Edn. With 7 Plates and 350 Cuts. 3s. 6d.t 
190. STEAM AND THE STEAM ENGINE, Stationary and 

Portable. By John Sewell and D. K. Clark, M.I. C.E. 3s. od.J 
200. FUEL, its Combustion and Economy. By C. W. Williams, 

With Recent Practice in the Combustion and Economy of Fuel — Coal, Coke, 

Wood, Peat. Petroleum, &c.— by D. K. Clark, M.I.C.E. 3s. 6d.t 

202. LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES. By G. D. Dempsey, C.E. ; with 

large additions by D. Kinnear Clark, IM.I.C.E. 35.+ 
211. THE BOILERMAKER'S ASSISTANT in Drawing, Tem- 

plating, and Calculating Boiler and Tank A\^ork. By John Courtney. 

Practical Boiler ilaker. Edited by D. K. Clark, C.E. 100 Illustrations. 2s. 
217. SEWING MACHINERY : Its Construction, History, &c., with 

full Technical Directions for Adjusting, &c. By J. W. Urquhart, C.E. 2s. t 
223. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Comprising Metallurgy, 

Sloulding, CciSting, Forging, Tools, Workshop !Machiner>', Manufacture of 

the Steam Engine, &c. By Francis Campin, C.E. 2s. 6d.t 

236. DETAILS OF MACHINERY. Comprising Instructions for 

the Execution of various Works in Iron. By Francis Campin, C.E. 3'=.1: 

237. THE SMITHY AND FORGE; including the Farrier's Art and 

Coach Smithing. By W. J. E. Crane. Illustrated. 2s. 6d.J 

238. THE SHEET-METAL WORKER'S GUIDE; a Practical Hand- 

book for Tinsmiths, Coppersmiths, Zincworkers, &c. AVith 94 Diagrams and 
Working Patterns. Bj' W. J. E. Crane, is. 6d. 

251. STEAM AND MACHINERY MANAGEMENT : with Hints 

on Construction and Selection. B3' il. Powis Bale, ]\I.I.]\I.E. 2s. 6d.4: 

254. THE BOILERMAKER'S READY-RECKONER. By J. 

Courtney. Edited by D. K. Clark, C.E. 4s., limp ; 5s., half-bound. 

255. LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE-DRIVING. A Practical Manual for 

Engineers in charge of Locomotive Engines. By JMichael Reynolds, il.S.E. 
Seventh Edition. 3s. 6d.. limp; 4s. 6J. cioth boards. 

256. STATIONARY ENGINE-DRIVING. A Practical Manual for 

Ens;ineers in charge of Stationary Engines. By Michael Reynolds, M.S.E. 
Third Edition. 3s. 6d. limp ; 4s. 6d. cloth boards. 

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nolds, Michael 



I R396 

1888x 



Locomotive engine driving. 
Stll ed. London : Crosby Lock- 
woid, 1888. 

12^444 




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